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postgresql 10 – Cancelling an upgrade/migration from Postgre 10 to 12

I’m using these command to upgrade, it runs well until 9GB it became really slow:

# sudo pg_dropcluster 12 main --stop
# sudo pg_upgradecluster 10 main
Restarting old cluster with restricted connections...
Notice: extra pg_ctl/postgres options given, bypassing systemctl for start operation
Creating new PostgreSQL cluster 12/main ...
/usr/lib/postgresql/12/bin/initdb -D /var/lib/postgresql/12/main --auth-local peer --auth-host md5 --encoding UTF8 --lc-collate en_CA.UTF-8 --lc-ctype en_CA.UTF-8
The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "postgres".
This user must also own the server process.

The database cluster will be initialized with locales
  COLLATE:  en_CA.UTF-8
  CTYPE:    en_CA.UTF-8
  MESSAGES: C.UTF-8
  MONETARY: C.UTF-8
  NUMERIC:  C.UTF-8
  TIME:     C.UTF-8
The default text search configuration will be set to "english".

Data page checksums are disabled.

fixing permissions on existing directory /var/lib/postgresql/12/main ... ok
creating subdirectories ... ok
selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix
selecting default max_connections ... 100
selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB
selecting default time zone ... Asia/Jakarta
creating configuration files ... ok
running bootstrap script ... ok
performing post-bootstrap initialization ... ok
syncing data to disk ... ok

Success. You can now start the database server using:

    pg_ctlcluster 12 main start

Ver Cluster Port Status Owner    Data directory              Log file
12  main    5434 down   postgres /var/lib/postgresql/12/main /var/log/postgresql/postgresql-12-main.log

Starting new cluster...
Notice: extra pg_ctl/postgres options given, bypassing systemctl for start operation
Roles, databases, schemas, ACLs...
 set_config 
------------
 
(1 row)

 set_config 
------------
 
(1 row)

 set_config 
------------
 
(1 row)

 set_config 
------------
 
(1 row)

Fixing hardcoded library paths for stored procedures...
Upgrading database postgres...
Analyzing database postgres...
Fixing hardcoded library paths for stored procedures...
Upgrading database template1...
Analyzing database template1...
Fixing hardcoded library paths for stored procedures...
Upgrading database geo...

The watch:

Every 2.0s: df -t ext4 -h ; du -s /var/lib/postgresql/10 /var/lib/postgresql/12/                                    data: Fri Jan  1 02:21:03 2021

Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/vda1        56G   32G   22G  60% /
/dev/vdb1        98G   73G   21G  78% /mnt/vdb1
11376348        /var/lib/postgresql/10
9466976 /var/lib/postgresql/12/
# ps -e -o pcpu,pmem,rss,comm,args --sort=pcpu | grep postgres
 0.0  0.0  3404 postgres        postgres: 10/main: logger process   
 0.0  0.5 23684 postgres        postgres: 10/main: checkpointer process   
 0.0  0.2 12044 postgres        postgres: 10/main: writer process   
 0.0  0.5 20260 postgres        postgres: 10/main: wal writer process   
 0.0  0.1  5608 postgres        postgres: 10/main: autovacuum launcher process   
 0.0  0.0  3812 postgres        postgres: 10/main: stats collector process   
 0.0  0.0  4004 postgres        postgres: 10/main: bgworker: logical replication launcher   
 0.0  0.5 23976 postgres        /usr/lib/postgresql/12/bin/postgres -D /var/lib/postgresql/12/main -c config_file=/etc/postgresql/12/main/postgresql.conf -c hba_file=/tmp/pg_hba.LVD6EB.conf
 0.0  0.3 12348 postgres        postgres: 12/main: autovacuum launcher   
 0.0  0.1  6732 postgres        postgres: 12/main: logical replication launcher   
 0.0  0.0   672 grep            grep --color=auto postgres
 0.1  1.3 52672 postgres        /usr/lib/postgresql/10/bin/postgres -D /var/lib/postgresql/10/main -c config_file=/etc/postgresql/10/main/postgresql.conf -c hba_file=/tmp/pg_hba.LVD6EB.conf
 0.1  0.1  5716 postgres        postgres: 12/main: stats collector   
 0.2  0.0  3848 watch           watch -dc df -t ext4 -h ; du -s /var/lib/postgresql/10 /var/lib/postgresql/12/
 0.4  3.5 144416 postgres       postgres: 12/main: checkpointer   
 1.1  3.5 141528 postgres       postgres: 12/main: background writer   
 2.2  0.2  8392 pg_restore      /usr/lib/postgresql/12/bin/pg_restore -h /var/run/postgresql -p 5434 --data-only -d geo --disable-triggers --no-data-for-failed-tables
 2.3  0.2  9884 postgres        postgres: 12/main: walwriter   
11.4  0.3 14160 pg_dump         /usr/lib/postgresql/12/bin/pg_dump -h /var/run/postgresql -p 5432 -Fc --quote-all-identifiers geo
19.1 27.0 1089624 postgres      postgres: 10/main: postgres geo (local) COPY
55.9  3.8 155360 postgres       postgres: 12/main: postgres geo (local) COPY

The question is.. if I cancel the upgrade (Ctrl+C) since it’s already take too much time unlike when I upgrade postgresql 9.6 to 10 that only less than an hour with similar dataset (and not sure when it will end, there’s 2 hours of data loss/not inserted because of upgrading), what would be happened? (I have 1GB xz-ed backup from 2 hours ago)

EDIT

apparently it’s migrating on another folder too (I put some other tablespace on different directory back then because of running out of main partition space), so it’s progressing well and doesn’t stuck:

# du -s /mnt/vdb1/pgdata2/*/
41035516        /mnt/vdb1/pgdata2/PG_10_201707211/
26548836        /mnt/vdb1/pgdata2/PG_12_201909212/

UPDATE

it’s completed around 3 hours for 39 GB of data ‘__’)

bitcoind – Failed to start bitcoin daemon using Ubuntu 20.04

Hey I keep getting this error everytime I run sudo systemctl enable –now bitcoind

Job for bitcoind.service failed because the control process exited with error code.
See “systemctl status bitcoind.service” and “journalctl -xe” for details.

When I input sudo journalctl -xe –unit bitcoind I get this.
bitcoind.service – Bitcoin daemon
Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/bitcoind.service; enabled; vendor pres>
Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Wed 2020-12-30 15:12:05 UTC; 23s >
Process: 2411 ExecStartPre=/bin/chgrp admin /etc/bitcoin (code=exited, stat>

Here is how my bitcoind.service looks. I changed the user and group from bitcoin to admin.
(Unit)
Description=Bitcoin daemon
After=network.target

(Service)
ExecStart=/usr/bin/bitcoind -daemon
-pid=/run/bitcoind/bitcoind.pid
-conf=/etc/bitcoin/bitcoin.conf
-datadir=/var/lib/bitcoind

PermissionsStartOnly=true
ExecStartPre=/bin/chgrp admin /etc/bitcoin

####################

Type=forking
PIDFile=/run/bitcoind/bitcoind.pid
Restart=on-failure
TimeoutStopSec=600

User=admin
Group=admin

RuntimeDirectory=bitcoind
RuntimeDirectoryMode=0710

ConfigurationDirectory=bitcoin
ConfigurationDirectoryMode=0710

StateDirectory=bitcoind
StateDirectoryMode=0710

####################

PrivateTmp=true

ProtectHome=true

ProtectSystem=full

NoNewPrivileges=true

PrivateDevices=true

MemoryDenyWriteExecute=true

(Install)
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Here are the steps I made before:
~$ cd src
~/src$ git clone –depth 1 –branch v0.20.1 https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin.git
~/src$ cd bitcoin
~/src/bitcoin$ ./contrib/install_db4.sh pwd
~/src/bitcoin$ ./autogen.sh
~/src/bitcoin$ export BDB_PREFIX=’/home/ubuntu/src/bitcoin/db4′
~/src/bitcoin$ ./configure BDB_LIBS=”-L${BDB_PREFIX}/lib -ldb_cxx-4.8″ BDB_CFLAGS=”-I${BDB_PREFIX}/include”
~/src/bitcoin$ make
~/src/bitcoin$ sudo make install
~/src/bitcoin$ bitcoind -version
vi bitcoin.conf
server=1
rpcbind=127.0.0.1
whitelist=127.0.0.1
rpcallowip=127.0.0.1/32
zmqpubrawblock=tcp://127.0.0.1:28332
zmqpubrawtx=tcp://127.0.0.1:28333

~$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/bitcoin
~$ sudo cp bitcoin.conf /etc/bitcoin
~$ sudo chmod 644 /etc/bitcoin/bitcoin.conf

Utimately I got
ubuntu systemd(1): Failed to start Bitcoin daemon.

vector calculus – Numerically solving 3D Maxwell equations with NDEigensystem

I am trying to get electric $vec{E}$ and magnetic $vec{B}$ fields in a cylindrical cavity with a dielectric, as in the following Figure. Cavity (pink) with a dielectric inside (blue).

Both the cavity (pink) and dielectric (blue, with dielectric constant epsilon_r) are cylindrical and share the main axis. The cavity is assumed to be conducting, such as the field at its surface has to be null.

By resorting to the vector potential $vec{A}$, and using the generalized Coulomb Gauge transformation such that:

$vec{E}(t,vec{r})=-partial_t vec{A}(t,vec{r}),$

$vec{B}(t,vec{r})=vec{nabla} times vec{A}(t,vec{r}),$

$vec{nabla} cdot left( epsilon_r(vec{r}) vec{A}(t,vec{r}) right)= 0,$

I got the system of differential equations that $vec{A}$ has to satisfy:
begin{equation}
vec{nabla}^2 vec{A}(t,vec{r}) – frac{1 + epsilon_r(vec{r})}{c^2}partial_t^2 vec{A}(t,vec{r})=0.
end{equation}

Here, $vec{r} = (x,y,z)$.

I would like to have the eigenfrequencies and (spatial) eigenfunctions of this last operator. As far as I have understood, NDEigensystem with DirichletCondition is what I have to use; with the first output being the frequencies of the modes and the second output the spatial envelopes of the eigenfunctions.

I tried that, and failed (quite miserably). Not only the eigenfrequencies are imaginary and the spatial envelopes of the eigenfunctions do have an imaginary part$^{*}$. If I plug the outcome of NDEigensystem into the differential equations, I find that these equations are not even satisfied. I am sure that it is me failing somewhere, but after long time spent trying, I am starting being really frustrated. My code is the following:

{vals, funs} = NDEigensystem({EqSt(t, x, y, z, z1, z2, e, c) == {0, 0, 0}, BndCnd}, {Ax(t, x, y, z), Ay(t, x, y, z), Az(t, x, y, z)}, t, {x, y, z} (Element) Cylinder({{0, 0, 0}, {0, 0, d}}, r), 16, Method -> {"PDEDiscretization" -> {"FiniteElement", "MeshOptions" -> {"MaxCellMeasure" -> 0.01}}}});

where EqSt(t, x, y, z, z1, z2, e, c) is the system of differential equations

EqSt(t_, x_, y_, z_, z1_, z2_, er_, c_) := Laplacian({Ax(t, x, y, z), Ay(t, x, y, z), Az(t, x, y, z)}, {x, y, z}) - (1 + fer(z, z1, z2, er))/c^2 {D(Ax(t, x, y, z), {t, 2}), D(Ay(t, x, y, z), {t, 2}), D(Az(t, x, y, z), {t, 2})};

and BndCnd the boundary conditions

BndCnd = {DirichletCondition(Ax(t, x, y, z) == 0, True), DirichletCondition(Ay(t, x, y, z) == ,True), DirichletCondition(Az(t, x, y, z) == 0, True)};

Finally, the dielectric function fer(z, z1, z2, er) that I use to mimic the dielectric is the following:

fer(z_, z1_, z2_, e_) := e (HeavisideTheta(z - z1) - HeavisideTheta(z - z2));

which is a step function in the z-th coordinate (= the axis of both cylinders) having value e betweem z1 and z2 and zero elsewhere.

I have tried different methods and different values of “MaxCellMeasure” (there is little improvement, but the error which I obtain by plugging the solution into the differential equations is above one!!!). Do you have any idea what is wrong here?


I have few “bonus questions” here.

-First, I tried increasing the mesh resolution for getting better outcomes, but all the times the eigenfunctions look quite bad, not smooth at all. I guess that a 3D mesh is quite demanding, but I know that the most difficult part is going to be at the dielectric. How can I tell NDEigensystem to have a finer mesh there?

-Second, there is a way to change the normalization of the eigenfunctions? I have read that NDEigensystem spits out eigenfunctions $vec{phi}_i$ s.t.: $int vec{phi}_i^* cdot vec{phi}_j d vec{r} = delta_i,j$. I would change that to $int epsilon_r(vec{r}) vec{phi}_i^* cdot vec{phi}_j d vec{r} = delta_i,j$, would this be possible?

-Finally, I guess that it might be easier for NDEigensolver to remove the time dependence from the differential equations. This can be easily done by assuming that $vec{A}(t,vec{r}) rightarrow vec{A}(vec{r})e^{-i omega t})$. In this case, one can rewrite the operator equation above as:
begin{equation}
vec{nabla}^2 vec{A}(vec{r}) + frac{omega^{2}}{c^2}(1 + epsilon_r(vec{r})) vec{A}(vec{r})=0.
end{equation}

However, I do not know how to tell NDEigensystem that $omega$ is not a parameter, but should be found with the system constraints… There is a way to remove the time dependence from the equation to be given in NDEigensystem?


$^*$I guess this is a stupid problem; if I change the sign of the Laplacian I get real eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions… But I am quite confident that the sign in the above equation is correct. There is something that I am missing here?

dnd 5e – Can an Eldritch Knight Attack Twice With Green Flame Blade and War Magic?

An 8th-level Eldritch Knight has a sword.

The War Magic class ability says:

When you use your action to cast a cantrip, you can make one weapon attack as a bonus action

And the cantrip Green Flame Blade says:

You brandish the weapon used in the spell’s casting and make a melee attack with it against one creature within 5 feet of you

So I think that means there are 2 sword attacks in total for that turn.

One attack is a bonus action, and one is a side effect of the cantrip. In addition to that are the flame effects of the cantrip as well.

(The 2 attacks are not related to the Extra Attack Fighter class ability, which requires taking the Attack action, which is not being done here.)

Is the above information correct?

macbook pro – Trackpad gestures not working

Some of my macbook trackpad gestures are not working, such as open the launchpad using 4 fingers; show the desktop; and enlarge images using 2 finger pinch. I’m sure all of those functions are enabled in the system preference.

Other gestures are working normally, such as to swipe between applications using 3 fingers; go back and forth in browsers using 2 fingers, etc.

I guess it’s those gestures requiring using the “pinch” action are not working and everything else seem to be fine. Could you please tell me how to fix this problem? Many thanks!

How can I change my Windows 10 user name?

I am setting up a new PC with Windows 10 Pro and I mistakenly logged in with my Microsoft Account. That set me up with an administrator account with a user name made up of the first 5 characters of my email address. But my old PC has a user name which is my first name. I have several file handling utilities that rely on a directory structure of C:/User/, where is my first name. I’ve tried googling and tried several suggestions, but none lead to a place to actually change the name. I did find one way to rename my user name on my MS account site, except that it changes my email address as well. I’m thinking that I have to run Refresh to install Windows again so that I can bypass the log in to Microsoft and create a local account. But a Refresh saves my settings, does that include my account and user name? Or am I asked to do that again so that I can skip it this time.? Is a Refresh a viable way? It won’t be too hard, I’ve only installed a few apps and I can do those over again. Does a refresh change the vendor’s drivers? I’m at a loss. Thanks for any help.