I am trying to write (what I think is a beautiful piece of code) a Java program that would find the $n$‘th term of a recursively defined sequence through efficient matrix exponentiation, in the following manner:

Given is a linear recurrence relation:

$$f(n) = c_1f(n-1) + c_2f(n-2)+ dots + c_kf(n-k)=sum_{i=1}^kc_if(n-i)$$

With known integer coefficients $C_k = { c_{1 leq i leq k }}$ and known integer base cases $B_k = { b_{1 leq i leq k }}$

For demonstration of notation, for the well known fibonacci sequence, this becomes $C_2 = { 1,1}$ and base cases $B_2 = { 1,1}$ , $f(n) = f(n-1) + f(n-2)$.

The Java method takes as arguements the desired term index $n$, a mod $m$ (because terms grow large very fast), an array of the coefficients $C_k$ and an array of the base cases $B_k$. The method returns the value $f(n) space mod space m$.

The class looks like this:

```
public class test2 {
public static void main(String() args)
{
long n = 13;
long m = 100000000L;
long () baseCases = {1,1};
long () coefficients = {1,1};
long v = f(n , m , coefficients , baseCases);
System.out.println(v);
}
public static long f (long n , long m , long () coefficients , long () baseCases) //main method, taking arguements of nth term, mod m , coefficients and base cases
{
// generate the transformation matrix {c1, c2 , c3} , {1,0,0...} , {0,1,0,0...} , {0,0,1,0....}........
int k = coefficients.length;
long ()() M = new long (k)(k);
for (int i = 0 ; i < k ; i++)
M(0)(i) = coefficients(i);
for (int i = 1 ; i < k ; i++)
{
for (int j = 0 ; j < k ; j++)
M(i)(j) = 0;
M(i)(i - 1) = 1;
}
// generate the "bases" matrix
long ()() B = new long (baseCases.length)(baseCases.length);
for (int i = 0 ; i < baseCases.length ; i++)
B(0)(i) = baseCases(i);
for (int i = 1 ; i < B.length ; i++)
for (int j = 0 ; j < B(0).length ; j ++)
B(i)(j) = 0;
long v = ME(B , M , n - k + 1 , m); //the matrix raised to the n-k+1 power would yield the nth term. for fibonacci, k = 2 , so n-1 exponentioation
return v;
}
public static void mult (long M1 ()() , long M2 ()() , long m) //method to multiply 2 matrices
{
int r = Math.max(M1.length, M2.length);
int c = Math.max(M1(0).length, M2(0).length);
int mulTemp()() = new int(r)(c); //temporary matrix to store values
for (int i = 0 ; i < r ; i++)
{
for (int j = 0 ; j < c ; j++)
{
mulTemp(i)(j) = 0;
for (int k = 0 ; k < r ; k++)
mulTemp(i)(j) += M1(i)(k) * M2(k)(j) % m;
}
}
//transferring the values back to M1
for (int i = 0 ; i < M1.length ; i++)
for (int j = 0 ; j < M1(0).length ; j++)
M1(i)(j) = mulTemp(i)(j);
}
public static long ME (long B()() , long M()() , long n , long m) //method for fast matrix exponentiation
{
if (n == 1)
{
long s = 0;
for (int i = 0 ; i < B(0).length ; i++)
s += B(0)(i);
return s;
}
ME(B , M , n / 2 , m);
mult(M , M , m);
if ((n & 1) != 0)
mult(B , M , m);
long s = 0;
for (int i = 0 ; i < B(0).length ; i++)
s += B(0)(i);
return s;
}
```

}

The code is relatively concise and clear, and commented as necessary, but it doesn’t do as intended. For example, as is currently written in the main method, i am trying to generate the fibonacci sequence with it. Fibonacci numbers are indeed generated, but not with the respective $n$‘s (for $n=13$ it gives $5$ and it should give $233$, for $n=10$ it gives $89$ instead of $55$.

**I think I am mishandling the matrix methods, and also I am not using the base cases correctly, I don’t know exactly how to use them in the code..**

I would like to know how to change this code to be able to deal with **any linear recurrence relation**, with the known given (integer) parameters as I mentioned, and not just the Fibonacci sequence (I am only using this sequence in the post because it’s the easiest to understand and implement). I can easily look up the Fibonacci matrix exponentiation algorithm but it didn’t give me much insight as to how to generalize this idea.

Any insights and corrections of the code are most welcome, thank you.