You are running the Qt version of Bitcoin, which includes the GUI. If you have bitcoind, you can quit the Bitcoin application and type
bitcoind into your terminal.
tail -f ~/.bitcoin/debug.log in your terminal to see then end of the debug file, which will show you when new blocks arrive.
Alternatively, you can install bitcoind from Bitcoin.org. This is a different package than Bitcoin-Qt. Bitcoind only runs “in terminal” so there is no GUI.