Yes, while your eyes are quite good at adapting to color temperature changes, the image will look off on displays that are not using the same color shift you used when editing the image.
For this reason many photographers calibrate their displays for editing to set them to a shared neutral setting. This includes color temperature, color shifts and display brightness (most displays are set way too bright). They will also set the brightness to a set level and disable nightshift or other tools. As the surrounding light also influences your color perception, some even add shades to their screens or use daylight balanced light bulbs.
This results in an image that will be displayed as intended on most uncalibrated displays – and more importantly, it will produce images that will look ok in printing.
What happens if your display settings are off?
In this case, the image will be skewed towards the opposite of you setting: On a very bright display, you will edit your image as too dark, as the darkness is countered by your display settings. The same is true for nightshift mode: The display is very yellow which will lead you to add tons of blue to you image. On a neutral display, it will appear as that – way too blueish.
Can you edit at night?
So, yes you can edit images at night, but you should reduce external light and try to have daylight balanced lights in the room. Plus you definitely should not use nightshift or similar tools on a photo editing workstation.
To be on the safe side, review you images at day the next morning. This is always a good thing – just to have a fresh final view.