In https://www.techiedelight.com/print-all-paths-from-root-to-leaf-nodes-binary-tree/, the code for printing root to leaf for every leaf node is provided below.

They state the algorithm is O(n), but I think it should be O(n log n) where n is the number of nodes. A standard DFS is typically O(n + E), but printing the paths seems to add a log n. Suppose $h$ is the height of the perfect binary tree. There are $n/2$ nodes on the last level, hence $n/2$ paths that we need to print. Each path has $h + 1$ (let’s just say it’s $h$ for mathematical simplicity) nodes. So we need end up printing $h * frac{n}{2}$ nodes when printing all the paths. We know $h = log_2(n)$. So $h * frac{n}{2} =

```
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
using namespace std;
// Data structure to store a binary tree node
struct Node
{
int data;
Node *left, *right;
Node(int data)
{
this->data = data;
this->left = this->right = nullptr;
}
};
// Function to check if a given node is a leaf node or not
bool isLeaf(Node* node) {
return (node->left == nullptr && node->right == nullptr);
}
// Recursive function to find paths from the root node to every leaf node
void printRootToleafPaths(Node* node, vector<int> &path)
{
// base case
if (node == nullptr) {
return;
}
// include the current node to the path
path.push_back(node->data);
// if a leaf node is found, print the path
if (isLeaf(node))
{
for (int data: path) {
cout << data << " ";
}
cout << endl;
}
// recur for the left and right subtree
printRootToleafPaths(node->left, path);
printRootToleafPaths(node->right, path);
// backtrack: remove the current node after the left, and right subtree are done
path.pop_back();
}
// The main function to print paths from the root node to every leaf node
void printRootToleafPaths(Node* node)
{
// vector to store root-to-leaf path
vector<int> path;
printRootToleafPaths(node, path);
}
int main()
{
/* Construct the following tree
1
/
/
2 3
/ /
4 5 6 7
/
8 9
*/
Node* root = new Node(1);
root->left = new Node(2);
root->right = new Node(3);
root->left->left = new Node(4);
root->left->right = new Node(5);
root->right->left = new Node(6);
root->right->right = new Node(7);
root->right->left->left = new Node(8);
root->right->right->right = new Node(9);
// print all root-to-leaf paths
printRootToleafPaths(root);
return 0;
}
```
```