drush – How can I export only one paragraph type, the fields, the form settings and the display settings?

That’s exactly what the Features module is for. Syncing partial config across multi-site instances.

The features module enables the capture and management of features in
Drupal. A feature is a collection of Drupal entities which taken
together satisfy a certain use-case.

Features provides a UI and API for taking different site building
components from modules with exportables and bundling them together in
a single feature module. A feature module is like any other Drupal
module except that it contains additional information in its info file
so that configuration can be checked, updated, or reverted

That means you would create a feature on your main multi-site instance that contains the paragraph type. Have it placed under modules/features. Related config will be added automatically. You then enable the feature on another multi-site instance. The config will be imported. On both multi-site instances you then export config as usual.

As soon as you add another field to the paragraph type on either multi-site instance Features will recognise the changes. You then can recreate your paragraph feature and import the changes on another multi-site instance. Finally, on both sites again export config as usual. Features enables you to keep track of changes to a feature via built-in diffing, which after you recreated the feature can be synced on other multi-site instances again.