gps – Can I know location of a phone if it doesn’t have AGPS?

There is assisted GPS, which as I got it figures out your location only by distance from antennas.

I am sorry but this sentence is wrong. What you describe is not “assisted” GPS /AGPS.

AGPS or “Assistend GPS” is mechanism for GPS to minimize the initial starting phase until the first GPS “fix” (the first calculated GPS location).
For doing so AGPS uses a small data (downloaded via mobile network) set which contains the info which GPS satellite uses what frequency and where in the sky it should be located roughly.

What you describe is the “Location Estimation of Mobile using cell towers.” For doing so GPS is not used at all. You only use the exact geo location data transmitted by each cell phone tower plus the recipient strength for each signal.

On Android you can not enable the cell tower localization individually. It is always combined with the same, Wifi based location system and builds Android’s “coarse” location system (in difference to “fine” which uses GPS assistend or not).

If you have activated it on modern Android devices all apps can make use of it. But each app has to request permission to access the location from the user.