grub2 – Boot GNU GRUB Version 2.04 after fresh install of Ubuntu 20.04

My computer boots with GNU GRUB Version 2.04 right after I did a fresh install of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (with LVM and full encryption). I can’t get past the GRUB console (Minimal BASH-like line editing is supported. for the first word, TAB lists possible command completions. Anywhere else TAB lists possible device or file completions).

My computer had already Ubuntu 20.04 LTS installed after an upgrade from Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (with LVM and full encryption). I had some issue with the swap file (apparently too small) and decided to go for a fresh install.

The computer is a Dell Latitude 7370 (with a SSD). The BIOS was recently updated (1.19.5). No dual boot.

grub> exit gets me to a blue screen “boot restoration option” where I can either reset the system or continue boot. Both get me back to the grub console.

From a live ubuntu session, sudo update-grub gives me /usr/sbin/grub-probe: error: failed to get canonical path of '/cow'.

I ran Boot Repair from a live-USB but there was not the option to do a “Recommended repair”. Here is the pastbin:

I’ve spend some time trying to find a solution without any success. Any idea what would be the issue and how to solve it?