optics – How are wide angle lenses able to project an image onto a sensor?

The Nikon F-mount has a flange distance of 46.5mm. A 14mm lens for example has an horizontal angle of view of about 104°. How is a lens able to project an image from the rear element onto the sensor over such a long distance with this huge angle of view?

I made a small drawing to explain the situation:

enter image description here