privacy – Can I determine whether my phone probes base transmission station (BTS) without a SIM card?

This question is related to another inquiry on this site: Can Android phone running without SIM card be tracked (localized) by police?

Accepted answer claims that:

Without a SIM, your cell phone will not normally transmit data to
local base stations, but if you make an emergency call, it will
identify itself with the cell tower by sending its IMEI

But no solid evidence is provided. Also, what does “normally” mean? Do iphones behave differently in that regard than android / harmonyOS / whatever? Or does the software not matter at all, and it’s only due to manufacturer ?

Ideally, I’d like to know how specific model X of a brand Y behaves in a situation like that, or at least if there are general approaches taken by manufactures.

I know about existence of phones that prioritize security and privacy (at least in marketing) like Librum 5 or Pinephone, with physical kill switches. Also, I’d assume that mainstream manufactures may disable probing for BTS without SIM card while low on power in software or simply after clicking “disable mobile data” (but I honestly doubt that).
My problem is that I’m struggling to find any credible source that researched this topic.

Do I have to use IMSI catcher to determine for sure? Or can I simply ask my cellular network provider to share this info ?