No, not possible even with root. And rightly so, since accessing fingerprint data is a huge security risk.
Android stores fingerprint data in Trusted Execution Environment and can’t be accessed even with root. This data doesn’t leave the device nor is it a part of app data. For more details, see
(from our sister sites) :
Cracking TEE is not a trivial exercise (theoretically possible, I guess) – if one could, it breaches the entire security system of Android.