SEO – Does a lot of relevant internal links influence the ranking of the pages and is there a limit?

We are revising our internal linkage strategy in my workplace.

The current implementation uses a series of links and places them on a number of pages accessible from the header. Some links appear more often than others.

Consider these two cases:

case 1

Source page: Summer shorts for men

Interner Link zu: Summer Shorts for Women
Internal link to: Ladies hats
Interner Link to: Sweatpants

Case # 2

Source page: Summer shorts for men

Interner Link zu: Swimsuits for men in oversize
Interner Link zu: Men's sunscreen
Interner Link zu: Men's sweatpants

Case 1 contains internal links that are not directly related to the source page, but case 2.

Does one of the two cases influence the ranking of the pages?

Second question: Is there a gold standard for the frequency with which a link can be displayed on the website? What happens if a link from 500 different pages is linked?