With SharePoint’s built-in list view functionalities this isn’t possible, unless you provide some additional information along the fields you already have.
Because any further personal information besides the person’s name can’t be retrieved automatically to your list view setting’s available fields, there isn’t a field which would allow you to do something like
[Foreman] equals to [Me]. I’d imagine that a typical approach would be to have a list for your employees and another list which lists e.g. the “teams”, “foremen”, “supervisors”, or whichever suits to your case. These information would need to be kept up-to-date manually. Then you could have the information retrieved to your primary list through lookup columns and create the views according to available details. So basically the manual approach we’d usually want to avoid.
To achieve your initial, more automatized goal, it probably could be done with some SharePoint’s user REST API calls which query the user properties from the AD details. This would require an up-to-date AD profile and significantly more work in terms of customization. How to do this exactly would be a whole another question.