Some questions about SFP+ fiber networking in general

Ok. So I’m completely new to the world of fiber. I’ve used Ethernet all my life.
We’re looking to upgrade some of our infrastructure, and I’m thinking of getting a few of these:

10G Dual SFP+ NIC

for our servers and a couple of these to connect them

POE Switch with 4x10G SFP+ Uplinks

But I’m a bit confused about this transceiver stuff.
Do these NICs and Switches just have holes in them that I’m supposed to put transceivers in?
I’m used to regular switches with regular ethernet, I get a patch cable rated for the speed I want and plug it in at each point and call it a day.

I know I want 10G Fiber to and from my servers, and then 1G Ethernet is fine everywhere else.
What am I missing? Am I just worrying for nothing?
What kinds of wires do I even need? There are so many, and with ethernet I just know all this stuff already. But I don’t even know what to search for when it comes to fiber.