No, the spell’s range is zero feet. It’s attached to your hand.
To establish what the description says:
A 4-foot-long, blazing, forked bolt of electricity springs forth from your hand. You wield this spear-like bolt as if it were a trident (you are considered proficient with the bolt). Attacks with the trident are melee touch attacks. The bolt deals 1d8 points of electricity damage + 1 point per 2 caster levels (maximum +10). Since the bolt is immaterial, your Strength modifier does not apply to the damage. The bolt can ignite combustible materials such as parchment, straw, dry sticks, and cloth.
It says you may wield the bolt as it were a trident, and you may certainly throw a trident (though with a 10′ range increment, it isn’t ideally used in this way). However, the description goes on to say that all attacks with the bolt are melee touch attacks, which strongly implies that it may not be thrown.
I think the deciding factor here is the fact that the bolt “springs forth from your hand” and the spell’s range is 0′. Note it says “from your hand” and not “in your hand.” This implies that it is attached to you and you are not holding it with the option to drop or throw. Further, the spell’s range is 0′, which means that the bolt may not break contact your hand.