computer architecture – What is the maximum memory address space that microprocessor can access directly if a 16-bit memory module is interfaced with a 32-bit microprocessor?

The Complete question is as follows :

Consider a single-address 32-bit microprocessor with 32-bit address bus and 32-bit data bus. Its
instructions composed of 1-byte opcode and 3-byte operand address.
What is the maximum memory address space that the microprocessor can access directly if a 16-bit memory module is interfaced with the microprocessor ?

I am confused as microprocessor is having 32-bit address bus and the memory module has 16-bit address lines. So, according to me total memory size of the memory module would be 2^16. But I don’t understand what will be the maximum memory space that can be accessed by microprocessor.

I have thought that if 16 address lines of microprocessor is connected to the 16 address lines of the memory module then we will have remaining 16 lines of microprocessor.

Any idea or knowledge regarding this would be helpful to let me think of its solution.

How to upgrade from Ubuntu 14.04 (32-bit) to latest Ubuntu Budgie (64-bit)?

Ubuntu 14.04 (32-bit) is installed on my laptop along with Windows 7. I have barely used Ubuntu, but I’m on it now since Windows is troubling me.

I was looking for a Ubuntu flavour that is light-weight, and I found Ubuntu Budgie, which is also pretty sweet looking, hence I opted it.

I’d be highly grateful to you, shall you could give me exact steps on how I can update to the latest version of Ubuntu Budgie (64-bit version.)

Please let me know if I need to update Ubuntu 14.04 as well.


-When I was trying to update the OS using Software Updater, I would get the error, “Requires installing from untrusted sources.” And I’d have two options, “Settings…” (which leads to the Software Updater) and “Close”.

Related Queries:

-Does all the flavours of Ubuntu require the ‘original’ Ubuntu to be installed, or they are stand-alone operating systems?

-I need an operating system which is ligh-weight and can run most Windows softwares. Is Ubuntu Budgie a good pick or should I go for something else?

Memory: 3.9 GiB

Processor: Intel Core i3-2350M @ 2.30GHz x 4

Graphics: Gallium 0.4 on NVD9

OS type: 32 bit

Disk: 47.3 GB

Launch 32-bit OpenGL application in WINE on ubuntu 20.04 with NVIDIA

How can I make 32-bit OpenGL apps work on 20.04 with nvidia 460.

ii  libnvidia-gl-460:i386                         460.39-0ubuntu0.20.04.1
   i386         NVIDIA OpenGL/GLX/EGL/GLES GLVND libraries and Vulkan ICD

Is installed. Do I need anything else, or maybe it is no longer possible to run 32-bit OpenGL apps without software emulation on NVIDIA?

But software rendering will not work either, because there is on 32-bit version of osmesa to be installed. Ie

$ wine ssmaze.scr /s
0009:err:dib:init_opengl Failed to load OSMesa: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

16.04 – What is the minimum space needed for Ubuntu 16.04LTS 32bit? Do I need a linux swap also?

I am severely limited on my main hdd, as /dev/sda1 (windows 7) is 59.51gib with a 2gib linux swap, and a 13gib /dev/sda2 ext4 where I had an installation of Arch 32. Is it possible install Ubuntu 16.04lts 32 in same partition?
Do I still need the 2g swap to run Ubuntu? Thanks David

rendering – 16bit triangle lists vs 32bit triangle strips

When drawing geometry we may use indexed drawing, where we pass index of the vertex we want to draw in array. In this case we need to pick a topology for our geometry and the type of indices.

Popular topologies are triangle lists, where we have to specify 3 indices for each triangle, and triangle strips, where each new triangle shares its first 2 vertices with last 2 vertices of previous triangle.

As for index types – we have 16 bit indices, which allow for ~65k vertices per model, and 32 bit indices, ~4B vertices.

My GPU (1050ti) fetches 32 bit indices at half the rate of 16 bit indices, where 16 bit indices triangle list topology gets it at its maximum throughput, but so do 32bit triangle strips. As my GPU isn’t that old, I expect many GPUs to be quite alike in this manner.

So, is the inconvinience of having to specify geometry in strips worse than having a limit to 65k vertices per model?

Upgrading Windows Server 2008 Standard (32-bit) to Windows Server 2016 Standard (64-bit)

I’m trying to upgrade my windows server 2008 standard 32-bit version to windows server 2016 standard 64-bit version. The server is currently running as a secondary domain controller as the primary has failed. I was hoping I could do an in place upgrade but I am now realizing that upgrading from the 32-bit to the 64-bit is not possible.

If I were to reformat and start fresh what would that mean for all my workstation computers? If I remove all of my machines from the domain, do the server upgrade, and then re-join all the machines to the new domain does that mean there’s going to be new profiles on every workstation computer and thus seem to the end-users as though they have brand new machines or after re-joining the new domain (with the same name) will their existing profiles continue to act as they did before?

Lastly, depending on the answer to the previous question should I be doing an upgrade from windows server 2008 to windows server 2012 R2 and then an update to Windows server 2016? Or upgrade to Windows server 2012 and then update to windows 2016? The question being that I don’t think I have windows server 2008 R2 so should I be going to windows server 2012 R2?

linux – auditd rules for both 64-bit (b64) and 32-bit (b32) architectures

I’m looking at the OpenSCAP Security Guide for CentOS 7:

Under “Record File Deletion Events by User” (as an example), it provides this auditd rule:

-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete

It advises to set “ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system.”

I have a 64-bit system (uname -m returns x86_64), but checks fail unless I include rules for both b32 and b64:

Title   Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User
Rule    xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_file_deletion_events
Result  fail

I’m wondering why the b32 line is needed. I tried testing this by setting the architecture to i686 and deleting a file, but it appears to use the 64-bit syscall:

touch audit_i686
setarch i686 rm audit_i686

I’d like to to understand the reason for the 32-bit architecture line and be able to demonstrate the reason for it to any skeptical sysadmins.

❓ASK – Is it profitable or even possible to mine on a 32-bit laptop? | Proxies-free

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