Multi-Factor – Should a 2FA app require authentication to grant access to 2FA tokens?

I do not know the theoretical background for 2FA and ask here.

I used some 2FA apps before Duo Mobile and Steam Mobile (Guard).
When Duo opens, your tokens will display as expected, but Steam will show your guard token, whether you're logged in or not. The Guard behavior grabbed my attention because I expected to be logged in first to see the token because the token is tied to my account unlike Duo where services are registered for use. Apart from that, Duo could use a main password (a la LastPass) to further protect the tokens.

My question then is whether the functioning of 2FA (especially for mobile apps) is considering whether a user should be authenticated in the 2FA app to gain access to tokens.

In my opinion, the security level is the same as that of SMS 2FA, where it can be assumed that only the real user can access tokens because he knows the PIN of the phone's lock screen. In this system, the phone is the authenticator, and exclusive access is granted by knowing the lock screen PIN. For 2FA apps, the app is the authenticator, but can not grant exclusive access. Anyone who has access to the app (imagine a shared phone where 2+ people know the PIN for the lock screen) can access the tokens.

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unity – How do I access a game uploaded to the internet?

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c ++ – access to the value of an array of pointers

We know that we can dynamically create variables with pointers, such as:

int *p= new it (5)

we can access its value with the "*" as


However, this is not the case for the array. Consider the following code:

int size_array=5;
int * p = new int (size_array)

If we need to access the value of the first element, we proceed as follows:

cout<< p(0);

but why can not we do the same as for a dynamic variable like above? With "*":

cout <<*p(0)

Configure Thunderbird for IMAP access to Gmail Ubuntu 19.10

I do it all on Ubuntu 19.10 in the standard Thunderbird application that is installed with the operating system.
I'm having trouble configuring Thunderbird in a VMware environment.
I am using a VMware 15 workstation.
I'm having trouble using Gmail. I have discussed it here. Https:// space now I want to try the proposal to me is given.
So I started configuring Thunderbird in Ubuntu19.10 in VMware
Everything was automatic I did not enter any values ​​except my username and password. But I have an error as shown in the screenshot.
Thunderbird problem
In my Gmail settings, I checked if POP3 and IMAP are allowed. How do I configure Thunderbird in this environment for it to work?

API design – offline synchronization with changing access rights

We have a distributed application where a client synchronizes and makes changes to specific data areas with its offline storage. The data is structured in container entities "container" and entities "entity". Each "C" contains many "entities" and each "entity" must belong to a "container".

When the client is refreshed, it goes through its local Cs and uploads the changes to each E in that container. It will then query all entities of the current container that have changed since the last sync and modify / add them.

The system has a very detailed authorization system, which can sometimes lead to the following situations: A certain entity is no longer available to the client. How should the server pass this change on to the client? In the current situation, if the client requests changed entity of a container since the last synchronization time, it does not receive it -> because there are no access rights. If the entity has local changes, the server can inform the client when it tries to update it. But what if there is no need to synchronize local changes?

I have already explored the following solutions, but always noticed disadvantages:

  1. Search each local "entity" and see if it is still available -> too many requests.
  2. List all "entities" after synchronization and check which local entities are no longer displayed -> increases the load on synchronization requests.
  3. At the end, make a separate call to check which entities are no longer visible to the client because last synchronization -> query too complex.

The only possible solution I could find:

In the request to retrieve all entities that have changed since the last sync, you must also include those entities that are not visible but have a "deleted" state, such as "deleted".

  "id": "...",
  "state": "Deleted"

Then the client can respond and delete them.

This solution is feasible, but adds a lot of additional logic to the requirement.

Does anyone know a standard approach / design pattern or method? Every input is requested.

How do I fix the encryption after granting access to an app?

A few minutes ago, I granted access to the Lawnchair app so that my phone could be locked by tapping twice. I received a warning stating that this would "compromise" the encryption, so I need to authenticate myself. It turns out that my phone no longer asks for a password when booting. This worries me that my phone can easily be unencrypted. How do I get my encryption back?

I tried to remove access permission from the Lawnchair app, but my phone still does not prompt for a password at startup. I have also checked if the encryption is enabled in the settings. I have not tried a factory reset yet. I'd rather avoid that, but I'm ready if it's the only way.

I have Android 9 with a CAT S61 model (they use an almost standard Android OS, as far as I understand it).

Web Application – How do I configure Azure Web Apps to have the only access through CloudFlare?

I have a Web Apps (Linux) application on Azure and I've added a custom domain that I've protected with CloudFlare.

I added Azure Security Center to my subscription.

At the moment you can either access the application

  1. directly via or
  2. via, which is protected by CloudFlare

How do I configure the Azure portal to have the only access to my web application through CloudFlare?

One idea I had was to add an Azure firewall and set a whitelist for the CloudFlare IP addresses, but I was wondering if there was an easier way (and I'm not sure how I got them should configure).

How do I access Electrum via the rest of the API?

I can make calls from the server on the server. When I say calls, I mean it. That means I can get the latest addresses like this:

$ch = curl_init();

curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, "");
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, "{"id":"curltext","method":"listaddresses"}");
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, 1);

$headers = array();
$headers() = "Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded";
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, $headers);

$result = curl_exec($ch);
if (curl_errno($ch)) {
    echo 'Error:' . curl_error($ch);
curl_close ($ch);
print '

The problem is, I do not want to have to do this on the server. I had hoped that there would be a safe way to do this remotely.

Can someone please tell me if this is possible? I tried to open port 7777, but I still can not access it. Is it intentional? As I can imagine, this is a security issue.

Thanks a lot!