java – Given an unordered symbol table(array based) Is there an advantage to using a contains method that returns the index?

I am working on an assignment and was curious about a potential real world application. Would it be more efficient to use a contains method that returns the index of the key or -1 if not found. This I imagine would allow the programmer the ability to save double calls to get and contains within a method. Both methods have O(n) time complexity worst case. Is there a reason not to do it? The only reason why I could imagine not doing so is because it could confuse the client.

Taking advantage of DDoS protection by tunneling traffic through a protected provider?

I’m looking to protect one public IPv4 address (let’s call it Host A) that belongs to a dedicated server in a datacenter that has a somewhat lackluster DDoS protection. I have a high level theory about how it could be done but would appreciate any input or even better options.

Basically I want to leverage another provider’s DDoS protection by tunneling traffic from Host A to Host B, and then pointing my client application to Host B

Could I set up a GRE tunnel between the Host A and Host B and achieve the protection that Host B has?

dnd 5e – Can an NPC rogue (who pretended to be allied) use Sneak Attack against a character, even without advantage or another hostile creature nearby?

This doesn’t work, unless the DM wants it to work.

The conditions for triggering sneak attack damage are quite clearly spelled out:

Once per turn, you can deal an extra 1d6 damage to one creature you hit with an attack if you have advantage on the attack roll. The attack must use a finesse or a ranged weapon.

You don’t need advantage on the attack roll if another enemy of the target is within 5 feet of it, that enemy isn’t incapacitated, and you don’t have disadvantage on the attack roll.

The situation you describe does not sound like it lines up with the conditions. Nevertheless…

The DM can decide you have advantage.

The rules do not explain every possible circumstance that may grant advantage or disadvantage. To account for this, the DM is given discretion here. From the rules for advantage and disadvantage:

The DM can also decide that circumstances influence a roll in one direction or the other and grant advantage or impose disadvantage as a result.

At their discretion, the DM may decide that the circumstances warrant giving a particular roll advantage or disadvantage. It sounds to me like the situation you describe is definitely surprising, so advantage on the attack does not seem unreasonable, and would then trigger sneak attack damage.

This ruling is kind of lame because of misaligned expectations.

The reason you are asking this question is because you understand how sneak attack normally works, and the situation where sneak attack was used against your party member did not line up with that understanding. Your expectations and what happened did not line up. To be clear, this is not always bad. Interesting plot points that subvert our expectations are good. Subversion of expectations that lead to player characters dying are pretty cheap (in my opinion).

Most people don’t go into the game expecting to cheap shotted by the DM, and this sounds like that is exactly what happened.

Moving forward, it may be best to discuss this move with your DM. This answer has some guidance for getting that ball rolling, and this article has some more in depth guidance to think about: What kind of game do you want to play?

dnd 5e – What ways (other than advantage) are there to improve the total for a death saving throw?

This is a community wiki answer; feel free to edit it to add in the rest of the methods.

Some features that grant advantage may be missing as they would theoretically be part of “How else can I get Advantage on Death Saving Throws?”

Class Methods


Adds a bonus to another creature’s death saving throw

Grants a bonus to all saving throws

  • Alchemist Artificer’s Experimental Elixir

Has a chance of granting a bonus


(…) (T)he creature can (…) add the number rolled to one (…) saving throw it makes. (…)


(…) (Y)ou can reroll a saving throw that you fail. (…)


(…) your mastery of ki grants you proficiency in all saving throws. (…)

  • Way of the Drunken Master’s Dunkard’s Luck

Can spend Ki Points to cancel disadvantage


(…) whenever you or a friendly creature within 10 feet of you must make a saving throw, the creature gains a bonus to the saving throw equal to your Charisma modifier (…)


  • Monster Slayer Ranger’s Supernatural Defense

Potentially grants you a bonus to the saving throw (may warrant its own question entirely)


  • Divine Soul Sorcerer’s Favored By The Gods

Lets you add a bonus to a failed saving throw

  • Wild Magic Sorcerer’s Bend Luck

Lets you add a bonus to another creature’s saving throw


  • Fiend Warlock’s Dark One’s Own Luck

Lets you add a bonus to a saving throw


  • Chronurgy Wizard’s Chronal Shift

Allows an ally to reroll a saving throw

  • Chronurgy Wizard’s Convergent Future

Lets you decide the result of a saving throw

  • Divination Wizard’s Portent

Allows you to replace the roll of a saving throw

  • War Wizard’s Arcane Deflection

Allows you to add a bonus to your saving throw (requires your reaction, so it would require you to not be incapacitated while making death saving throws)

  • War Wizard’s Durable Magic

Grants a bonus to saving throws (requires you to be concentrating on a spell, so it would require you to not be incapacitated while making death saving throws)

Feat Methods

Lets an ally reroll a natural 1 on a saving throw

Lets you roll an additional d20

Spell Methods

(…) Whenever a target makes (…) a saving throw before the spell ends, the target can roll a d4 and add the number rolled to the (…) saving throw. (…)

Lets the target add a bonus to saving throws

(…) (T)he target can roll a d4 and add the number rolled to one saving throw (…)

(…) While the target is within 60 feet of you, it gains a +1 bonus (…) saving throws (…)

Item Methods

You gain a +1 bonus to (…) saving throws (…)

You gain a +1 bonus to (…) saving throws (…)

(…) (Y)ou also gain a +1 bonus to saving throws. (…)

(…) You gain a +1 bonus to saving throws (…)

(…) (Y)ou gain a +2 bonus to (…) saving throws (…)

(…) (Y)ou gain a +1 bonus to (…) saving throws.

dnd 5e – Do Steel Wind Strike’s melee spell attacks have advantage if the caster is under the effect of the Invisibility spell?

Either the first one, or none of them.

Take eldritch blast as precedent, as the wording is similar. Eldritch blast calls for ranged spell attacks against multiple targets, specifically making “a separate attack roll for each beam” (PHB p.237), similar enough to steel wind strike‘s “make a melee spell attack against each target.”

The Sage Advice Compendium reads as follows, in response to a question asking whether the beams from eldritch blast are simultaneous:

Even though the duration of each of these spells is instantaneous, you choose the targets and resolve the attacks consecutively, not all at once. If you want, you can declare all your targets before making any attacks, but you would still roll separately for each attack (and damage, if appropriate).

SA-C p.12

Thus, since each attack happens in series, and invisibility ends either when you attack or cast a spell, there are two distinct points when the invisibility could end. If “casting a spell” is considered to occur when you begin casting a spell, then you become visible before any attacks are made. Otherwise, it will last until the first attack breaks invisibility, and that one attack will be made with advantage.

So the issue rests on when the character is considered to have cast a spell. I’m not aware of an official ruling that would make this determination, but if one exists, it will be the determining factor.

dnd 5e – Do you get advantage on the Steel Wind Strike spell’s attacks because you “vanish”?

RAW: you don’t become invisible, so you don’t get advantage.

The description of the steel wind strike spell says (XGtE, p. 166; emphasis mine):

You flourish the weapon used in the casting and then vanish to strike
like the wind
. Choose up to five creatures you can see within range.
Make a melee spell attack against each target. On a hit, a target
takes 6d10 force damage.

You can then teleport to an unoccupied space you can see within 5 feet
of one of the targets you hit or missed.

The description says that you “vanish”, not that you gain the invisible condition. By description, you disappear and then make a spell melee attack for each target: the attacks are simultaneous. After having resolved all the attacks, you can teleport next to one target.

Hence, this spell allows you to attack simultaneously up to five enemies and then teleport next to one of your targets: during each attack you are not next to your target and, more important, you are not invisible.

Is there any advantage to bringing the user in-app for reset password vs in a browser?

Always, always, always keep the reset in the app. I once tested a reset password functionality from inside an app to a browser and the users I was testing with, all of them to a tee, asked “Why is the reset link taking me to the browser?”

If the user forgets the password inside the app, email a reset link, and then the link from the email should bring the user back to the app where they create a new password.

dnd 5e – Does Blink grant advantage on the first attack roll after you return?

No. It doesn’t grant advantage on your attack, because you reappear at the start of your turn.

The description of the blink spell says:

Roll a d20 at the end of each of your turns for the duration of the
spell. On a roll of 11 or higher, you vanish from your current plane
of existence and appear in the Ethereal Plane (…) At the start of
your next turn
, and when the spell ends if you are on the Ethereal
Plane, you return to an unoccupied space of your choice that you can
see within 10 feet of the space you vanished from.

As you can see, the spell description states that if you do vanish from your current plane and appear in the Ethereal Plane, you return at the start of your next turn. (The spell’s duration is “1 minute” and does not require concentration, so if you’re still in combat when the spell ends, it still ends at the start of your turn, 10 rounds after you initially cast the spell.)

The rules on unseen attackers and targets state, in part (emphasis mine):

When a creature can’t see you, you have advantage on attack rolls
against it.
If you are hidden — both unseen and unheard — when you
make an attack, you give away your location when the attack hits or

However, if you have the effect of blink active on you and you vanish into the Ethereal Plane at the end of one turn, you reappear in the Material Plane at the start of your next turn – which happens before you have even started to make any attacks at all. As such, you clearly don’t have advantage simply by virtue of the blink spell.

The benefit of blink is not offensive, but defensive (in the sense that it allows you to potentially avoid danger). As the second paragraph of the spell description states:

While on the Ethereal Plane, you can see and hear the plane you
originated from, which is cast in shades of gray, and you can’t see
anything there more than 60 feet away. You can only affect and be
affected by other creatures on the Ethereal Plane. Creatures that
aren’t there can’t perceive you or interact with you, unless they have
the ability to do so.

The blink spell makes it so that, if you roll an 11 on higher on the d20 at the end of your turn, you simply can’t be affected by most harmful attacks, spells, or other abilities. (Of course, your allies are still in harm’s way – and there’s also only a 50% that this happens, so you can’t rely solely on blink to keep you out of trouble.) However, blink doesn’t inherently grant any benefit to your attacks, because you reappear before those attacks happen – not as you’re attacking, and not as a result of the attack.

website – What the EMR Advantage patient portal lets patients see, and what it doesn’t let them see

I used to live in Ottawa. At the time, I visited an Appletree Medical Group doctor. The doctor then stored some information in my electronic medical record (“chart”).

This week, my dental-hygiene clinic asked me for some information from my chart.

Today, I logged into the Appletree patient portal, which is really just an instance of the Canadian Health Systems EMR Advantage patient portal. But I couldn’t find the information I was looking for.

Why not?