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Can you reproduce the appearance of an orthochromatic film with a blue filter on a panchromatic film?

In the past, films reacted to a limited range of the visible light spectrum. These orthochromatic films were very sensitive to blue light, in contrast to the more common panchromatic films used today, had an accurate color representation of yellow and green light, but were hardly sensitive to orange. The films could be exposed to red light, barely (or rather not) sensitizing the emulsion of the film.
The latter is also the reason why darkrooms use red lights to this day, as in black and white orthochromatic photo paper.

Panchromatic film, which today mostly displaces orthochromatic films, does respond to higher (red) wavelengths and some films even cover the infrared spectrum.

Considering how the orthochromatic films responded mainly to blue light, would the use of a blue filter on modern panchromatic films replicate the sound representation of ortho films? The use of a blue filter would prevent (most of) the red light from getting onto the film.
I could not find the answer to this question online, but have my doubts about my own theory. Mainly, the use of a blue filter would also mean a reduced sensitivity to yellow / green. Since I have limited knowledge of which filters are out there, is there perhaps a filter (a combination) that would approximate if it were not perfectly replicated?

mojave – How do I change the appearance of the volume and brightness overlay in dark mode?

As you all know, Apple released a thing called Dark Mode in MacOS Mojave. My problem is that I got used to the previous appearance of dark mode when there was only a dark dock and menu bar. I've found that I can enter a command in Terminal to restore the previous view:

defaults write -g NSRequiresAquaSystemAppearance -bool Yes

That worked well, BUT there is a problem. Not everything became really white. For example, the language switch remained as a white text over a white background, which is not really readable. Brightness and volume controls remained as dark cells over a dark background, which is also unreadable. Pictures below:

Illegible volume control

Illegible brightness control

Illegible language switch

The appearance of the language switcher was entered by typing:

defaults write com.apple.TextInputSwitcher NSRequiresAquaSystemAppearance -bool No

After that, it got completely black (like a normal dark theme), that's alright for me.

Readable language switch

I believe I can do the same with the audio and brightness overlay. The problem is that I do not know the specific name of this UI element to address it with this command. I want to change his appearance into an easy one. Is there a way to do that?

One more thing – is it possible to change the color of Notification Center and notifications yourself? They also stayed completely dark. I prefer to see only the menu bar and the dock in the dark. I would be very grateful if there is a solution to my problem. Thank you in advance!

Magical Items – What was the first published appearance of Saint Avenger (or the Holy Sword or similar "holy" weapons for paladins) in the Forgotten Realms?

Anyone who has ever played D & D knows this for sure Holy avenger, the mighty magic sword whose true power manifests only in the hands of a paladin. Where did the idea of ​​the Paladin carrying a special sacred weapon appear as the first official material for the Forgotten Realms?

If it helps, I follow the Holy avenger back to the early editions of D & D, where it was presented only as a sign of a wider type: the holy sword, The first printed appearance of the holy sword I can find in AD & D 1e Supplement 1: Greyhawkwho the holy sword as if it were a class feature of the paladin:

Paladins with any form of "Holy Sword" are virtually immune to any kind of magic (see MONSTERS & TREASURE, MAGIC & TREASURE, Swords).

(See p. 8.) Two types of holy sword There they were offered holy sword +5 and the Sword of sharpness, (See pages 46-47.) In AD & D 1e, the DMG also described the Holy avenger (technically called "Sword, +5, Holy Avenger") as "a holy sword, "(See p. 165.) And the 1e PHB treated again holy sword like a class feature, but without describing the characteristics of the weapon itself:

When a Paladin has a "Holy Sword" (a special magic sword) which your referee knows and explains to you if necessary) he or she projects a circle of force with a diameter of 1 "when the Holy Sword is pulled out of the scabbard, which dissipates magic … at the level of magical use that corresponds to the level of experience of the Paladin.

(P.22, emphasis added) In 2e, the PHB (see pp. 27-28) did essentially the same thing. At least two 2e volumes specific to the realms are mentioned Holy avengers (though not holy swords):

  • Faiths & Avatars mentions Holy avengers in relation to both Characters with the Crusader Kit (p. 184) and the weapon worn by Torm's Avatar: "Duty's Bond, a massive one Two Handed Saint Avenger +5 with all the strength of one sun blade also "(p. 163).

  • Warriors and Priests of the Realms mentioned the Holy avengerbut, strangely, only in terms of evil crusader figurines. (See p. 64.)

Both Faiths & Avatars and Warriors and Priests of the Realms Show release dates 1996.

In the face of that Faiths & Avatars It is conceivable that a previously published realms novel Torm has portrayed in his mortal life as a paladin Duty's Bond or some like weapon.

Are these the earliest published references to Holy avengers (or holy swords) in the realms? Or is there an earlier origin, perhaps in a rulebook or an early novel?

Plugins – With Woocommerce subscriptions you remove the appearance of subscriptions

I use With Woocommerce subscriptions and would like to remove the default display of a subscription price. Currently displayed as:

£ 100/12 months

I just want to have

£ 100

I searched and found in the source code preis.php shows the price, but I can not find where the subscription is appended. I also could not find documentation about it.

I should also add that I do not have a PHP background (though I'm an experienced developer in .net). I would like to have a solution that does not hack the existing plugin if that's possible?

How can I add student markers and table appearance with PHP?

Each element is successfully inserted into the results table, but the appearance of the results table in phpmyadmin is very different from what I expected when I added the student_code, subject_code, and subject_name marks
I have six subjects, which I expected is that every student should have all his grades in just one column. What I get now is that

    student_code subject_code subject_name marks
01 01 Kiswahili 50
01 02 German 50
01 03 Hisabati 40
01 04 Huji 44
01 05 Stadi Za Kazi 36
01 06 Sayansi 42

but i want to get that in phpmyadmin

You can see here that each student has all his notes in one column, unlike above

STUDENT_CODE KISWAHILI ENGLISH HISABATI HUJI STADI ZA KAZI SAYANSI
1 50 50 40 44 36 42
2 48 46 36 46 44 42
3 48 40 44 42 45 38
4 50 50 36 44 40 38
5 42 50 40 42 38 46

Here is my result table structure

                1 student_code varchar (250)
2 subject_code varchar (250)
3 subject_name varchar (250)
4 points int (10) 

Here's my subject table with the subject name and subject code already inserted

subject_code subject_name
1 Kiswahili
2 English
3 Hisabati
4 Huji
5 Stadi Za Kazi
6 Sayansi

Is there any way I can add grades for all six topics at a time, instead of adding and submitting grades for one topic and then taking grades for another and then adding them until all grades for six topics are present? Complete and then take another student and then do the same. I ask this, since you have 400 students and each student occupies all six subjects, it will be possible to use a loop.

What is the cause of the "zoomed" bokeh appearance of photos taken with a first-class lens?

This is just a reasonable guess that I have never seen tested or specially tested with lenses that have been heavily corrected for field curvature and astigmatism that are closely related.

Most lenses that are highly corrected for field curvature are used for macro works or for reproducing flat two-dimensional documents / graphics. "In such cases, the aesthetic properties of the background blur do not play a major role in lens design.

Lenses with uncorrected or undercorrected field curvature often also show sagittal astigmatism. The two things can be combined, especially when used with a moderately wide lens with a very large aperture, resulting in mechanical vignetting. This can lead to a "whirling" type of bokeh, often referred to as the "Petzval effect".

Most lenses that produce such "vortex bokeh" involve some form of mechanical vignetting.

Enter image description here

The widely opened opening on the left shows mechanical vignetting when the entire entrance pupil is not visible because the tube of the objective blocks part of it from an area still within the field of view of the objective. Even without significant field curvature or astigmatism, such a lens exhibits "cat's eye" bokeh.

Enter image description here

Add an uncorrected field curvature and a scene with lots of bright, blurry lights to the equation. For example, a bright sky behind foliage, and you get the "vortex bokeh" effect.

Enter image description here

What is this vortex-bokeh technique and how can I achieve that?
What is the cause of this uneven bokeh effect?

On the other hand, if the lens is greatly corrected for field curvature to give it a more or less flat focus field¹ and the lens also has tangential astigmatism, the shape of the bokeh will appear to be radially stretched from the center of the lens as in the example photograph shown in the question. By greatly correcting field curvature, the astigmatism may shift from sagittal (if FC is not corrected) to tangential. When the sagittal MTF is higher than the tangential MTF, the tangential lines are blurred than the sagittal lines and therefore propagate in the direction perpendicular to these tangential lines over a larger area.

Enter image description here

What most of us view as "good" bokeh in terms of the quality of the fuzzy highlights is the lens design, which does not or only insufficiently correct field curvature and / or spherical aberration. This means that such a lens is not the best candidate for other types of photography, such as: Landscape or architecture, if we want a good sharpness to the edge of the frame.

The classic example of this is the Canon EF 85 mm 1: 1.2 L II. What makes it so great is the uncorrected field curvature it shows. This makes it a totally unsuitable lens for flat reproductions or taking flat test charts, as the focus field at the edges and in the corner in front of the flat subject has a considerable distance when the center of the lens is perfectly focused on it. If you want to capture a perfect photo from a flat test chart, the floor will be absolutely clean with the $ 350 EF 85mm 1: 1.8 with the $ 2,000 EF 85mm 1: 1,2 L II. But if you want to have this fascinating bokeh on the edges of a portrait, there is nothing better than the 85 / 1.2!

¹ Note that most lenses have some field curvature. The focus field is not a perfectly flat plane, even with a theoretically perfectly manufactured lens. Lenses that are strongly corrected for field curvature, such as Many macro lenses, for example, still have a focus box that looks more like a Lasagne as a flat plane. They are not perfectly flat, they are only flatter than uncorrected or less corrected lenses. To learn more about the subtleties of the focus field, I recommend reading Roger Cicala's excellent series:
Fun with focus field part 1
Fun with Field of Focus II: copy-to-copy variation and lens test

What kind of appearance can I expect if I overexpose and simultaneously push film?

A dense, high-contrast negative with hidden highlights and more grain than you would normally expect from the movie.

Side Note 1: This page shows examples of different exposure / development combinations (though unfortunately not the one you are looking for, ie overexposed / overdeveloped).

Side note 2: I am curious why you would like to do this and how your workflow will look after the development of the films – perhaps conventional silver prints or scans? The benefit of the negative depends on what you want to do with it afterwards.