## Plotting – How do I avoid plotter area clipping errors in a PDF expression?

I am using Mathematica 11.3 on a Windows 10 computer. I recorded several of my records in a ListLinePlot. While the PDF file in the current version of Adobe Acrobat Reader DC 2019.010.20098 looks perfect, the print on three different printers and two different computers always shows strange extra lines traversing the entire image (see below).

This error seems to be related:
Mathematica Stack Exchange, Question 129805. However, since I think it's very general (see below) and the question was not precise enough, I raised a new question. I think these errors result from a clipping error / error in math of the PlotRange command for large records outside the specified bounds.

Here is a minimal example:

Let's calculate a simple normal distribution …

``````TestSet = Table[{x, PDF[NormalDistribution[0, 0.2], x]}, {x, -100, 100, 0,1}];
``````

Now we only record our dataset in a very small region …

``````SimpleExample = ListLinePlot[TestSet,PlotRange->{{-0.5, 1}, {0, 1}},ImageSize->400]
``````

Then I exported the drawing to a PDF file:

``````export["Test.pdf", SimpleExample, ImageResolution -> 600];
``````

While the PDF file looks good, the scanned print shows strange extra lines at the outer PlotRange boundaries. Obviously, the cut edges of the recorded data set are arbitrarily connected to an invisible outer frame …

By trial and error, I've found that the problem must be related to the amount of data that lies outside the PlotRange limits. In a simple workaround, I reduced the record with the self-created ChopLists function to just one nearest neighbor outside the PlotRange bounds:

``````                ChopLists[datalists_, xmin_, xmax_, ymin_, ymax_] : = (* ChopLists assumes that datalists are a list of sorted 2D lists. *)
module[{xmin2Next, xmax2Next, ymin2Next, ymax2Next},
(*If data outside the limits given by xmin, xmax,... exist, at least one data point (next neighbour) outside has to be still included by Chop List. Otherwise solid lines in ListLinePlot would stop before the frame boundary or might be falsely connected! E.g. truncated edges of a peak would be connected *)

xmin2Next = Min[If[Length[Select[##, #[[1]] < xmin &]] > 0, Select[##, #[[1]] < xmin &][[-2, 1]], xmin] & /@datalists]; (*calculate 2nd next neighbour in each direction, if it exists*)
xmax2Next = Max[If[Length[Select[##, #[[1]] > xmax &]]> 0, select[##, #[[1]]> xmax &][[2, 1]]max]& / @ -Datalists];
ymin2Next = min[If[Length[Select[##, #[[2]] < ymin &]] > 0, Select[##, #[[2]] < ymin &][[-2, 2]], ymin] & /@datalists];
ymax2Next = Max[If[Length[Select[##, #[[2]] > ymax &]]> 0, select[##, #[[2]]> ymax &][[2, 2]]ymax]& / @ -Datalists];

Choose[#, xmin2Next < #[[1]]<xmax2Next && ymin2Next <#[[2]]<ymax2Next &]& / @ -Datalists](* Since the 2nd nearest neighbor is the limit, the nearest neighbor is included in each direction, if any *)
``````

Well, if I use ChopLists[] to TestSet and use the same limits as for PlotRange ...

``````SimpleExampleChopped = ListLinePlot[ChopLists[{TestSet}, -0.5, 1, 0, 1], PlotRange -> {{-0.5, 1}, {0, 1}}, ImageSize -> 400]
``````

... and export again as a pdf ...

``````export["Test.pdf", SimpleExampleChopped, ImageResolution -> 600];
``````

... finally the funny lines are gone:

The same procedure also solved my initial problem: hacking the record with ChopLists[] Before plotting, the funny lines are gone:

My question is now: Is this a mistake of PlotRange or is it due to PDF export? Is this workaround required or is there a default option to solve similar problems? Are there any options or combinations thereof, e.g. PlotRangeClipping, PlotRangePadding or ClippingStyle to avoid these clipping errors (the simple combination of these three did not work for me)?

## Optics – Is the camera lens focus on an exact point or area?

There is only one distance that is in focus. Everything in front of or behind this distance is blurry. The farther we move away from the focus distance, the bleaker it gets. The questions become: Is that within our acceptable limit? How far removed from focus removal are things becoming unacceptably blurry? "

What we call Depth of field (DoF) is the distance range in front of and behind the focal point acceptable blurry so that things still look like they are in focus.

The depth of field depth depends on two factors: overall magnification and aperture. Total magnification includes the following factors: focal length, subject / focus distance, magnification ratio (determined by sensor size and display size), and viewing distance. The visual acuity of the viewer also contributes to what is acceptable sharp enough to appear out of focus.

The distribution of the depth of field before and after the focus distance depends on several factors, above all focal length and focus distance.

The ratio of a given lens changes when the focus distance is changed. Most lenses approach 1: 1 at the minimum focus distance. When the focus distance is increased, the rear depth of field increases faster than the front depth of field. There is a focus distance where the ratio is 1: 2 or one-third before and two-thirds behind the focal point.

At short focal lengths, the ratio approaches 1: 1. A true macro lens, which can project a virtual image onto the sensor or film that is the same size as the object for which the image is projected, achieves a ratio of 1 : 1. Even lenses that can not reach the macro focus have a ratio of nearly 1: 1 at their minimum focus distance.

At longer focus distances, the rear depth of field extends to infinity, and the ratio between front and back DoF approaches 1: ∞. The shortest focus distance at which the rear DoF reaches infinity is called as hyperfocal Distance. The near depth of field is very close to half the focus distance. That is, the nearest edge of the DoF is halfway between the camera and the focus distance.

We must also remember that the hyperfocal distance, as well as the notion of depth of field on which it is based, is really just an illusion, albeit a more persevering one. Only a single distance is the sharpest. Selective focus is the areas on either side of the sharpest focus that are so fuzzy that we still regard them as sharp. Please note that hyperfocal removal depends on a change in the factors that affect DoF: focal length, aperture, magnification / display size, viewing distance, etc. See Why this is the case:

Why did manufacturers stop using DOF lens scales?
Is there a rule of thumb that allows me to estimate the depth of field during shooting?
How do you determine the acceptable circle of confusion for a given photo?
Find hyperfocal distance for HD resolution (1920×1080)?
Why do I get different values ​​for the depth of field of calculators compared to the DoF preview in the camera?
As well as this answer to the simple fast DoF estimation method for main lens

## How can I sort a data area in Google Sheets based on a data area?

Hey guys, I was looking for a way to sort this information. I have to sort these articles in this order: BK, BB, BV, BIV, BIII, BII, BR. I was trying to create a Google script to get it, but I could only figure out how to order it. I need to order it automatically and on a specific sheet. Screenshots below:

Any help is appreciated, thanks.

Since it is not in the screenshot, the sheet name is Sheet1.

## 8 – Drupal Commerce Custom area as payment and shipping address

Currently, Drupal Commerce has no solution for the "Delivery address is the same as payment address" check box, which is very unfortunate. I was thinking about creating a custom section with my custom address form that would allow me to easily create such a check box. However, I could not find any way to trigger a payment (from the Commerce Payment module) after the address form was sent successfully. Can you help me? Many Thanks!

## Efficient data structure for storing whole numbers in one area?

Suppose I constantly get whole numbers from the field $$[1,2^{32}]$$ in a random order and need to save them so that I can handle it when a duplicate arrives. Everything by the end of this algorithm $$2 ^ {32}$$ Values ​​are treated.

What is the best way to store which integers have been treated so that we can search if the current integer is a duplicate?

## Threaded / Nested Mobile Comments Area – User Experience Stack Exchange

I'm building a mobile application to stimulate conversation, and a feature is able to comment on posts as well as comment on comments. Essentially a thread commenting system.

This can very quickly become very confusing, especially on mobile devices. So I'd like to know what you think about my solution that I've just developed for my app.

The way I have it is something like this:

So basically everyone `comment` has a `responds` and clicking on it brings you to a new screen in which `comment` is the "main text" and contains x number of comments containing essentially infinitely many nested / misplaced comments.

Is this a good UX implementation? I think it works .. maybe not brilliant, but I do not know if you can make a brilliant implementation of thread comments for mobile devices.

I think one possible addition that I could do to make it better is that the second screen may also show the original post, so users will not forget / lose the context of the post.

What do you think? Any feedback would be great! Many Thanks.

## Location Map: Show all locations based on search OR go through the search area?

We're trying to create a site search for the company so customers can find it in maps on the company's site.
How it works is:
1. The user enters the name of the city in the search for which he wants to display places
2. Zooms to this city and lists all available locations within the visible area

Since cities / suburbs are available in all shapes and sizes, we can not scale down to the limit, so there is a predefined zoom level that we must agree to.

As you can see in the diagram, some positions are out of sight. My argument is, for example, if the user enters London in the results list, we should list those that are out of the visible range, even if we do not zoom out to accommodate all positions in the view. However, they refuse and say that this is a location search for "MAP" so that the user must move the map for it to appear in the results list.

My considerations are:
1. The search is respected, the place IS in London we have to list
2. If the user searches on a slow 3G phone, he has no time to zoom out to increase the visible area. Just let him choose the location on the list to display the phone number or hours worked.

What do you think?

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## Do I need a visa for transit (or stopover) in the Schengen area?

It is sometimes difficult to find the right information, but everything is somewhere on the EU website. Wikipedia also has a good summary. Some embassies or government websites from the various Schengen countries also provide useful summaries. Legally, this is the Schengen visa code.

Here's a step-by-step guide to the rules to decide if you need a visa:

## 1. Are you flying in the Schengen area?

If your next destination is in the Schengen area, you will need to go through passport control to get to this flight. You need a regular Schengen visa, unless you qualify for visa-free entry.

If you go somewhere in the Schengen area and have already issued a visa from this country, then this visa Likewise allows entry into the Schengen area at a stopover in another Member State.

## 2. Can you enter the Schengen area?

If you can enter the Schengen area, you can also drive over there. You can enter the Schengen area if you are an EU / EFTA citizen, have a Schengen visa, a long-stay visa or a Schengen state residence permit, or are citizens of a country whose citizens do not need a visa to enter the Schengen area Visit the room. If any of these conditions apply, you can stop here, you do not need a visa. If none of this is true, read on.

The list of countries whose citizens do not need a visa to enter the Schengen area can be found on Wikipedia. They are colored green on this map by the European Commission.

## 3. Can you change without leaving the international area of ​​the airport?

Many airports in Europe have an international area with transfer / check-in desks, waiting areas, sometimes lounges, restaurants, shops or even a museum In front The border check point at which the police inspect the passports of passengers entering the Schengen area. Gates for non-Schengen destinations can be reached from this area, while domestic flights and Schengen flights depart from other parts of the airport.

Whether you can change without leaving this area depends on your specific connection (airport / terminal, airline, time). For example, some German airports close at night, so it is not possible to stay for an overnight transfer in the international area. Luggage straps are usually after this Pass-Check If your luggage can not be forwarded to a destination outside the Schengen area, you also have a problem.

After all, the passports of passengers do not need to be checked on flights within in the Schengen area, if you have two stopovers in the Schengen area (for example Mumbai-Vienna-Frankfurt-Chicago or Nairobi-Zurich-Frankfurt-Chişinău) become You must leave the international area and reach your In-Schengen flight through the border checkpoint. Same, if you have to change the airport.

If you need to leave the international area to make your transfer, you will not be able to travel without a visa and you need a full Schengen visa (and Not just a "transit visa for airports"). If you are in the international area ("transit airside"), read on.

## 4. Do citizens of your country need a transit airside visa?

If you get this far, it means that you are from a country where citizens need a visa enter the Schengen area. However, there is still a distinction between two categories of countries. While most people can fly without a visa, citizens of a smaller list of countries need a "transit visa for airports", even if they do not want to cross the border check point and enter the Schengen area.

The difficulty is that the list of countries whose citizens need a transit visa for the airport differs slightly from Schengen country to country. There is a list for the entire Schengen area (list in Wikipedia, dark red / burgundy on the map of the EU), but individual Schengen Member States can also add countries to the list. You must inform the commission, which lists all these requirements (current list as PDF, see also the same Wikipedia article).

If your country is not listed in one of these lists, you must stop here. You do not need a visa. However, if your country is on one of the lists (the general pan-European list or the list of country you wish to travel to) you may need a "transit visa for the airport" but read on, as there are some exceptions ,

## 5. Are there other rules that allow you to travel without a visa?

If your transfer requires an airport transit visa, there may still be a possibility of transit without a visa, as the Schengen Visa Code provides for a number of exemptions for persons who have a different visa or residence permit. Note that these exceptions apply only to those Transit visa for airports Requirement. If you need to enter the Schengen area (see question 2), these exceptions do not apply.

If you hold a valid visa from an EU country (which is the entire EU, not just the Schengen area, but also Ireland, UK, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania and Croatia), Canada, you are exempted from the airport transit visa requirement, Japan or the United States of America. You are also free if you have a residence permit from one of these countries or from Andorra or San Marino. In this case you are exempt Even if you do not travel to this country,

If you have such a visa or residence permit, you can enter without a visa, regardless of your nationality or destination. If you do not, you will need a visa.

If you have just used the visa (it is no longer valid but it has expired recently), you can continue to travel without a visa in the Schengen area for the return journey. This rule does not go very well with US visas as it is possible to stay legal in the US for a long time after your visa expires.

Under the Schengen provisions, holders of expired US visas may enter the Schengen area without a visa if they return from the United States after using the visa. However, check-in clerks may be overly cautious in their interpretation of US visas that have expired over a long period of time and consequently refuse to board.

In this case, it is strongly recommended to obtain a written confirmation from the airport of departure from the airport of departure, or to apply for a transit visa for the Schengen area.

## 6. Can I get this visa on arrival?

No you can not. In limited cases (mostly seafarers, EU citizens' families and emergencies) there are 15-day single-entry visas, but this is not common in Europe. If you need a visa, the staff of the airline / groundhandling staff at your departure airport will get a visa (they can be fined if they transport you without verification) and they will refuse to board you if you have no right to transit the hotel have relevant airports.

## python – Fill plot area without basemap

Hello

I am having trouble planning a map with the basemap.

I use the following code:

``````cMap = c.ListedColormap (['white'])
cMap.set_bad (color = & # 39; red & # 39;)
x, y = [to_np(lons), to_np(lats)]

fig = plt.figure (figsize = (8,5))
ax = fig.gca ()
m = base map (llcrnrlon = -30, llcrnrlat = 30, urrnrlon = 30, urcrnrlat = 70).
Projection = "Zyl", resolution = "L")
m.drawmapboundary ()
m.drawcoastlines (color = & # 39; black & # 39 ;, line width = 0.4)
m.drawings (color = & # 39; black & # 39 ;, line width = 0.4)
m.drawcountries (line width = 0.4)
m.Drawmeridians ((np.arange (x.min (), x.max (), 5)), labels =
[0,0,0,1], Font size = 8, line width = 0.5)
m.Assets ((np.range (y.min (), y.max (), 5)), labels =
[1,0,0,0], Font size = 8, line width = 0.5)

mapash = m.pcolormesh (x, y, v_masked)[0,:,:], cmap = cMap)
``````

Which produces the following graphic:

Instead of displaying the area I need in red (as shown on this map), I would like to know if I just need to draw the red outline without fills in the middle

Does anyone know how this works?