Copyright on game art – Game Development Stack Exchange

So I was checking some assets on asset store (2d games pixel-art mostly) and got a question

These two as example:

https://assetstore.unity.com/packages/2d/environments/2d-isometric-tile-starter-pack-27944

https://assetstore.unity.com/packages/2d/environments/2d-isometric-village-pack-86059

they look like many textures you see in any other 2d game, and doesn’t look very unique – I seen similar textures in many games, and I doubt devs/companies bought exactly those texture packs, probably artists just created their own arts that look similar, or maybe sometimes, for simpler textures like sand or water, exactly like existing textures in these or some other packs.

So the question is – how copyright works on art? Can I read about it somewhere, or maybe someone can just post a simple version of explanation? Is there minimal size on what can be copyrighted? Can I copyright a pixel? Or 16×16 pixels with, say 16 colors, not that much combinations, can I copyright all possible “arts”? If my game will accidentally have some character or texture that already exist in the world – how it should be treated – at what stage or percent it’s ok and at what it’s not?

So far I decided to google “Can I copyright a pixel” and looking at links (like this one https://steamcommunity.com/app/342280/discussions/0/371919771747864271/), but who know, maybe I can get something more useful here.

Photographs taken at an art exhibition 19 years ago to be displayed as promo for a current exhibition

I took a set of photographs at a famous artists exhibition 19 years ago and have an interested gallery who’d like to buy the rights to exhibit the images. After scanning them though I can see there are several of the audiences faces visible. Would I risk IP infringement and also breach of Data protection laws as their image is Personal Data ? Even if it was 19 years ago and a public space?

direction – What foundational skills are most important to lead a new project as an Art Director?

Let’s say I was building a new 3D platformer and need to fill a role for an Art Director that will then go on to build a team.

Let’s assume both candidates have a diverse work history in the gaming industry. They have both worked on AAA games for PC and console. They are currently art directors of other mid size game studios. Both of them have experience managing teams effectively.

But there are some differences between them:

Candidate A spent most of their career developing technical abilities in modeling and texturing. They excel in developing strong asset pipelines and making sure the final deliverables match the concepts closely as possible and are of exceptional quality. They do not excel in creating concept art or in creative design. They rely on curating and mentoring other artists concepts to find a creative vision.

Candidate B spent most of their career developing concept art and has an incredibly strong creative ability. They excel in developing a strong creative vision for the project and are able to build character and environment concepts, artistic guides, storyboards etc. They do not excel in modeling or texturing or have a strong background in asset pipelines but are familiar enough with the process to lead artists to get the close to the concepts and deliver assets of good to great quality.

Which candidates foundational skills are more important to lead the project and why?

I’m aware that there are a lot of parameters that may affect the answer to this question, and am trying to better understand those as well.

reference request – On the state of the art on closed $(n-1)$-connected $2n$ manifolds

In the paper “Classification of $(n – 1)$-Connected $2n$-Manifolds” by C.T.C.Wall (Annals of Mathematics , Jan., 1962, Second Series, Vol. 75, No. 1 (Jan., 1962), pp. 163-189), Wall studies $(n – 1)$-Connected $2n$-Manifolds with a small ball removed and proves a classification result for such manifolds in terms of algebro-topological invariants, namely the intersection form on the middle cohomology and a homotopy theoretic invariant which varies finitely.

In the introduction Wall makes the following remark (I quote): “In a subsequent paper, the author intends to study the diffeomorphisms of the manifolds here obtained; in particular, to give a complete set of invariants of isotopy of a diffeomorphism, and to consider more carefully the actual diffeomorphism classification of closed $(n-1)$-connected $2n$-manifolds (which is not settled in this paper, even when our results are complete.)”

There are two parts to my question:

  1. Did the mentioned paper appear?

I should mention that I have looked through the titles of Wall’s (100+) subsequent articles and not found a title directly related to this problem, hence the question.

I should also mention what is known in low dimensions. For $2n = 4$ this includes the smooth Poincare conjecture so is open to my knowledge, up to homeomorphism it has been settled by Freedman. In dimension $2n = 6$, I believe that it is known due to work of Wall, Jupp and Zubr that such a manifold should be diffeomorphic to a connect sum of $S^3 times S^3$‘s.

I ask a second part:

  1. Let $n$ be an even integer, $n geq 4$. What is the state of the art of the homoemorphism classification of closed $(n-1)$-connected $2n$-manifolds?

Note also in Question 2 I have intentionally slightly modified the problem, since manifolds with dimension $2 mod 4$ and the issue of different smooth structures are not of primary interest to me.

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licensing – Is using image found on google (without watermark) and turning it into pixel art with some filter would be illegal?

I’m working on AI collage generator with multiple png images from the internet (using google images search) and I wonder would my program break the law or not.
Program checks for watermark and omits images with watermarks.
The images will be pixelified like very much, even PNG image of a flower 1024×768 will be transformed into 16×16 pixelified image.

It’s like you type “barn with a sun and a horse on a field nearby” will create image with taken images from over the internet, but it will be like pixel art.

Generated images can be used by anyone, no matter the purpose.