memory – What on Earth is a “processor driver” supposed to be? Does that even make “bare metal” sense?

So it seems on Windows that there is a “driver” for everything. What in heaven’s name is a processor driver though?

As far as I understand “driver” on a low-level system interface it is merely just for the operating system to be able to create a communication strategy via the computer’s components, but that makes little sense when it comes to the CPU.

I see it as the CPU being the “engine” of the whole system, like the engine of a car. Why would the engine of a car need a communication specification with the car actually running? That would be like living/sentience requiring a “driver” for the mind to think when that function is innate and a driver of the actual process that would then require said “drivers” for external functions.

But the word is thrown around a lot and meaning isn’t always clear. The term “driver” is even used on a higher-level sense — not just as if it were a bare bones driver like with your keyboard. So I understand that a “CPU driver” is not actually a low-level driver like you would expect to be an interface to call functions with memory-mapped IO/etc. since the CPU is programmed ultimately down to the “bare metal” from the start, even if a higher-level language is used prior to compilation or such. As a mental exercise just give an example of writing a “CPU driver” to see how odd it sounds.

My guess is “CPU drivers” are just standards regarding identification of CPUs and info, but not any intermediary to control CPU functions since that is innate to the structural design of the computer and requires no “driver” to actually operate in that sense.

External hardware might require a bare metal driver since it makes it easier to integrate different functions together with an OS this way — but understanding a CPU “driver” in connection with the OS makes little sense since one is built on top of the other — having a “driver” for the CPU would then be like creating a communication between the thing it already made directly anyways.

Does anyone know how to better explain “CPU driver” in a low-level sense? The concept/understanding behind it is mucky.

react native – I can’t use any library that uses linking in an ejected bare expo project

I ejected my project a few days ago to use so components in Android that weren’t available for expo projects like a background module that can handle notifications but I can’t use a single one. I tried the react-native-background-job, react-native-background-fetch, react-native-background-task but all gave a similiar error message:

(Unhandled promise rejection: TypeError: null is not an object (evaluating 'RNBackgroundFetch.configure'))

Where ‘evaluating X’ had different X for each module. I tried checking if I missed any installation steps but I couldn’t find anything wrong and since it’s for many modules I guess it’s a from a common cause which I can’t solve individually. Thanks in advance for the attention

virtualization – Should a unified bare metal application suite outperform multiple VMs on the same hardware?

Assuming one single-socket Xeon D server, 8 cores, 16 threads, two 10G SFP+ interfaces, 64 GB of RAM, two SSDs…

An application bundle that includes a nginx, MariaDB, some app logic, and maybe Redis. OS would be FreeBSD or Fedora Server.

Does it confer any benefit to spin up several redundant VMs, each containing the full bundle, vs. just running one instance of the bundle on bare metal with no virtualization?

Would you predict any difference in networking performance or throughput? Does sharing the NICs among several VMs boost capacity at all? I mean some kind of SR-IOV hardware virtualization or similar. Can a NIC handle more connections if it’s virtualized?

Is it better to just have one instance of the app exploit and control the hardware directly?

(Assume same OS as host and guest in the virtualization case. I guess using KVM with Fedora.)


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Looking Glass:

Is it legal in Spain for a male airport security guard to ask you to lift up your blouse and swab your bare stomach?

Is it actually legal to ask me to lift up my blouse, as I find it a bit indecent?

Yes, its “legal” because it is not against the law. The security personnel have asked me to remove shoes, belt, lift up my shirt, turn over my pant waist, all in the name of security and all in the public area.

I guess the question in your mind is if it is okay for a male to do that for a female. In many airports, you can ask for a person of the same gender to screen you in private, or have one present while screened. However, as mentioned in the comments this has to be requested and even then it may not be practical as there may not be someone available; which may add to a delay for you.

As for the reaction on your skin, simply apply any topical allergy cream or ointment. It is likely a reaction against the fiberglass strands in the swab. If the rash persists or it becomes itchy, consult a medical professional.

Q: Is it possible to run ansible on a bare metal?

No. It’s not possible to run Ansible on bare metal. On the managed host, Ansible needs preinstalled SW, enabled connection and escalation. FWIW, as an example, below is my script to enable Ansible on FreeBSD.



# Install packages
env ASSUME_ALWAYS_YES=YES pkg install security/sudo
env ASSUME_ALWAYS_YES=YES pkg install lang/perl5.30
env ASSUME_ALWAYS_YES=YES pkg install lang/python37
env ASSUME_ALWAYS_YES=YES pkg install security/py-openssl
env ASSUME_ALWAYS_YES=YES pkg install archivers/gtar

# Create user
if (! getent passwd ${USERNAME} > /dev/null); then
    if (pw useradd -n ${USERNAME} -s /bin/sh -m); then
    printf "(OK) user ${USERNAME} createdn"
    printf "(ERR) can not create user ${USERNAME}n"
    printf "(OK) user ${USERNAME} existsn"

# Create directories and files

# $HOME/.ssh
if ( ! -e /home/${USERNAME}/.ssh ); then
    if (mkdir /home/${USERNAME}/.ssh); then
    printf "(OK) dir /home/${USERNAME}/.ssh createdn"
    printf "(ERR) can not create dir /home/${USERNAME}/.sshn"
    printf "(OK) dir /home/${USERNAME}/.ssh existsn"
( -e /home/${USERNAME}/.ssh ) && chmod 0700 /home/${USERNAME}/.ssh

# $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys
( ! -e /home/${USERNAME}/.ssh/authorized_keys ) && 
    touch /home/${USERNAME}/.ssh/authorized_keys
( -e /home/${USERNAME}/.ssh/authorized_keys ) && 
    chmod 0600 /home/${USERNAME}/.ssh/authorized_keys
chown -R ${USERNAME}:${USERNAME} /home/${USERNAME}

# Configure sudoers
cp /usr/local/etc/sudoers.dist /usr/local/etc/sudoers
chown root:wheel /usr/local/etc/sudoers
chmod 0440 /usr/local/etc/sudoers
echo "${USERNAME} ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL" >> /usr/local/etc/sudoers


dg.differentialgeometrie – Examples of a constant scalar curvature of a metric that is not bare

It is known that if the first Chern class is proportional to the specified kähler class, every cscK in this class must be Einstein. So there are two directions to generate examples as far as I can imagine:

1). It is a result if we have a cscK in $ (w) $ then sufficiently close for each kahl class $ (w) $ The existence of cscK is guaranteed. Maybe we can try to disrupt our class on manifolds where $ C_1 (M) <0 $.

2). Maybe we can look at manifolds where $ C_1 (M) $ is semiample.

I have no idea. Are there standard examples that are relatively easy to calculate?

Bare bones mailing list service

I want to create simple Mailling lists for my choir. What affordable or free services are available that are not hosted by yourself?

My use case is:

  • Few users (30-40)
  • Only one person needs to be able to add or remove people from the list
  • Only those on the list should see the emails.
  • A separate archive is not required (searchable on the Internet or not)
  • Multiple lists (all members, language groups, board members, etc.)
  • Anyone can send to the lists.

All of the services I could find seem to be way too much for my use case.