## Are bitwise operators in C used both for bit operations and for operations for integer or some C types?

I’ve actually upvoted this question, as a perfectly legitimate question from someone attempting to learn.

The first thing to say is that it’s conventional to distinguish between either “bitwise operators”, or “logical operators”. A “bitwise logical operator” sounds like a conflation according to this conventional distinction, even though it’s possible to make sense of the term as you are using it (since a bitwise operator typically applies a logical operator to an array of bits).

The “bitwise logical operators” and the “bitwise shift operators” are rarely if ever distinguished – both simply falling under the heading of “bitwise operators”.

A “logical operator”, conventionally, means an operator that folds multi-bit operands down to a single bit, and produces a result which is a single bit. Hence, you have the distinction between “bitwise NOT” (a straightforward inversion of all bits) and “logical NOT” (folding all bits with an OR operation to yield a single bit, followed by an inversion of that single bit – or something similar depending on the exact implementation and architectural details).

So your question concerns what are normally referred to simply as “bitwise operators”.

To answer the first of your questions, bitwise shifting is certainly used on integers. For example, multiplying an integer by 2, is generally equivalent to a bitwise left-shift of the same integer.

Your second question is a little ambiguous, but if it means “are bitwise shift operators used to select or manipulate individual bits”, then yes, they can be.

## data structures – How isolate the last bit work on teory Binary Indexed Trees

I’m learning about the Binary Indexed Trees, and I understand how it works, but I’m interested in the theory that there is behind!

In particular, I don’t understand what is meant the following definition on TopCoder

The algorithms for BIT require extracting the last bit of a number, so we need an efficient way of doing that. Let num be an integer. We will now show how to isolate the last bit of num. In binary notation num can be represented as a1b, where a represents binary digits before the last bit and b represents zeroes after the last bit.

My first question what is mean `a1b`?

In addition, I don’t understand what is mean this definition

Integer -num is equal to (a1b)¯ + 1 = a¯0b¯ + 1. b consists of all zeroes, so b¯ consists of all ones. Finally we have

-num = (a1b)¯ + 1 = a¯0b¯ + 1 = a¯0(0…0)¯ + 1 = ¯0(1…1) + 1 = a¯1(0…0) = a¯1b.

Someone can help me?

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## How long would it take to break a 32 bit key / encryption

Way too fast.
It’s only 4,294,967,296 combinations for 32 bit and 65,536 for a 16 bit. I assume it can be cracked in seconds/minutes by a high-grade consumer laptop.

The resources required for a brute-force attack grow exponentially with increasing key size, not linearly.

I would also suggest reading the article about breaking mnemonic seed where author had to calculate S`HA-256, SHA-512, RIPEMD-160, EC Addition, EC Multiplication` in every iteration and he was able to check ~143,000 mnemonics per second.

## No government agency or other authority keeps track of cash you put in the pocket of your old jeans or down the back of your sofa five years ago.

I was just hoping that maybe it would be listed under my name

Just as there’s no global registry of who currently owns every \$5 bill and where they put it, there’s no global registry of who owns every amount of Bitcoin. Like many other forms of cash, Bitcoin is anonymous.

If you can’t remember where you put those 50 \$100 bills you had five years ago, its unlikely random strangers on the other side of the planet would be able to tell you that you put it down the back of your uncle’s piano.

Bitcoin is cash in your pocket not a bank account. There is no Bitcoin corporation. Bitcoin tries to be anonymous, the only public information just links amounts of money to secret numbers. You have to know that secret number to spend the money. The secret number is stored in a computer program called a wallet, either an app on a phone or a program on a PC or maybe in a website run by one of thousands of online businesses who look after money for people.

No international or national government agency or other organisation keeps track of your cash for you.

I’m trying to find out if I invested in bit coin years ago any ideas on how I would do that?

You need to find the original wallet, some e-mail correspondence with a bank-like business (exchange, trading platform, etc) or somewhere you wrote down the details like the secret number (private-key or seed-phrase/backup-phrase/recovery phrase) or somewhere you stored a backup file made by whichever wallet program you had used (there are many, all different).

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Languages: EN

Description:

Bit Mina is a Top tier Financial Management company registered under UK country on September 2020. The main fundamental activity of the company is to allocate investment capital from our investors and attribute into cryptocurrency market and generate a sustainable and consistent profit which will then be distributed among investors and leaves some for the company aswell. What do we do? Bit Mina diversify capitals into many source such as scalping, day trading, swing trading, position trading and much more. We believe that the keys to success is diversity and not putting all eggs in 1 basket. Regardless of bullish or bearish market, our strategy will generate stable and consistent income that guarantees profit outcome with minimum risk possible. Bit Mina have gathered all the brightest minds from multiple fields in crypto markets areas to guarantee that all our decisions and actions that we have taken are always backed by experience, analytics, research and calculations. By combining the knowledge, capabilities and experience of financial trading with the possibilities offered by Blockchain technologies we manage to soar through the financial markets and brings you financial freedom to have a passive income anytime anywhere. Bit Mina have a dedicated technician team that specializes in machine learning and also artificial intelligence. The way that technology advances, it provides us with more flexibility and make our daily life easier. Every day our specialists tweak and upgrade our neural network algorithms in order to maximize their efficiency. To that extent, we have also planned to add extra diversification to our already existing strategy to ensure even higher safety to our investors. There will be endless opportunities and possibilities that are waiting to be explore and seen, that is why you should join Bit Mina as we have vision for the future and where the market is heading. The profits generated and collected by Us after distributing the accruals to investors, are directed towards financing our day-to-day operations. We are also building a reserve fund to serve as a guarantee for a future of stable accruals for all our precious investors. We take proper responsibility and cares for each of the funds of investors as its an important mutual trust and benefits from each others.

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1.15% – 1.5% Hourly For 90 Hours

Spent Amount (\$)    Hourly Profit (%)

\$10.00 – \$1000.00    1.15

\$1001.00 – \$3000.00    1.50

5% – 8% Hourly For 50 Hours

Spent Amount (\$)    Hourly Profit (%)

\$300.00 – \$3000.00    5.00

\$3001.00 – \$30000.00    8.00

15% – 20% Hourly For 30 Hours

Spent Amount (\$)    Hourly Profit (%)

\$1500.00 – \$10000.00    15.00

\$10001.00 – \$200000.00    20.00

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Dates    5 days old
Created on 2020-09-30
Expires on 2021-09-30
Updated on 2020-10-05

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## c++ – Undefined behavior due to bit fields?

I don’t use bit fields much. This question is due to the example given in Implementing a C style bitfield in Java

``````typedef union
{
typedef struct
{
unsigned short a :1;
unsigned short b :1;
unsigned short c :2;
unsigned short d :10;
} bitfield;

unsigned short bitmap;
}example_bitfield;
``````

Is this undefined behavior in C? What about C++?

If so, what’s the best way to express the intended functionality?