bitcoin core – Why do i get other merkleroot?

I use merkle.cpp code (which uses the libbitcoin library for some utility functions) from the Mastering Bitcoin book.

I tried to recreate Merkleroot Hash for bitcoin block # 100000 with 4 transactions:

 "tx": (

That's how I modified main() Function by adding hashes of all four txs:

int main()
    // Replace these hashes with ones from a block to reproduce the same merkle root.
    bc::hash_list tx_hashes{{

    const bc::hash_digest merkle_root = create_merkle(tx_hashes);
    std::cout << "Result: " << bc::encode_base16(merkle_root) << std::endl;
    return 0;

Compiling and running gave me:

Current merkle hash list:

Current merkle hash list:

Result: 6657a9252aacd5c0b2940996ecff952228c3067cc38d4885efb5a4ac4247e9f3

while the actual merkleroot is different:

"merkleroot": "f3e94742aca4b5ef85488dc37c06c3282295ffec960994b2c0d5ac2a25a95766",

What did I do wrong?

Install Flash Network Bitcoin Howto

Do you

sudo apt-get install -y software-properties-common
sudo add-apt-repository -u ppa:bitcoin/bitcoin
sudo add-apt-repository -u ppa:lightningnetwork/ppa
sudo apt-get install bitcoind lightningd

If you do not want to add external repositories, you can retrieve the Clightning documents from because they worked fine the last time you checked and were copied here for Your convenience.

library requirements

You need several development libraries:

  • libsqlite3: for database support.
  • libgmp: for secp256k1
  • zlib: for compression routines.

For the actual development and execution of the tests you also need:

  • pip3: to install python-bitcoinlib
  • valgrind: for additional debugging checks

You also need a version of Bitcoind with separate certificate and estimatesmartfee economic node, such as the 0.16 or higher.

Build on Ubuntu

OS version: Ubuntu 15.10 or higher

Get dependencies:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y 
  autoconf automake build-essential git libtool libgmp-dev 
  libsqlite3-dev python python3 python3-mako net-tools zlib1g-dev libsodium-dev 
  git gettext

Clone flash:

git clone
cd lightning

Obtain additional dependencies for developing or running tests:

sudo apt-get install -y valgrind python3-pip libpq-dev
sudo pip3 install -r tests/requirements.txt -r doc/requirements.txt

Build lightning:

sudo make install

Running lightning:

bitcoind &
./lightningd/lightningd &
./cli/lightning-cli help

Note: You may need to include testnet=1 in the bitcoin.conf

blockchain fork – Bitcoin Orphan blocks – short question about the factor "time delay" and the proof of work "size"

What is this "time delay"?

When a miner finds a block, he sends it to the network. As with all real networks, there is a latency ("delay time") for receiving this information through the other nodes in the network. In particular, there is some latency between the miner who found the block and other miners in the network. Even if the latency is low (milliseconds), there is still the possibility that another miner will find a block within this "delay time".

What exactly is the "size of the work certificate"?

Knots follow the colloquial "longest chain", but in reality they follow the "chain with the greatest work" (the difference is subtle but important). Each valid block is equally valid. So if there is "more work evidence" for a chain, it means that the chain is "longer" and thus the valid chain.

If two miners find valid blocks at the same block height, it is not clear which block will become part of the longest chain, until a miner finds a new block based on one of those blocks. At this point, the longer chain becomes clear and the nodes of the network follow it.

Above protocol rules: When exactly do the nodes (or the network) check them?

The consensus rules are defined by the source code itself, there is no formal specification.

When a node on the network learns of a new transaction or block, it performs a series of checks to determine the validity of that transaction / block. If it is invalid, it is discarded.

When a miner assembles a block template, he selects only transactions that he has validated, and carefully craft the block so that it is valid. So this happens before they start hashing. Otherwise, they would wasting hash power by creating an invalid block.

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Bitcoin miners attack with 51% majority – question on the role of user-activated soft forks as defense tactics

For example, if a mining company alone owns 52% of the hash power of the entire network, that party can block transactions and try to build a forked, longer chain over time, right? As far as I know, this can take several weeks with only 52% hash power …

Can someone please explain how the "User-activated soft-fork" feature can be a tool for network users to rescue and retain the "current" Blockchain version and escape the attacker? How would this ideally run from the perspective of the user (full node user)?


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Can a Bitcoin transaction be blocked by a specific Bitcoin address? (over mining basins)

Can a Bitcoin transaction be blocked by a specific Bitcoin address? (over mining basins)

Suppose Satoshi Nakamoto wants to send Bitcoin from one of his Bitcoin addresses. Can the mining pools refuse processing? (Considering that in China, 81% of the total bitcoin canker is combined with their pools).

I've heard that a mining pool (if it wants to) might refuse to move your transaction into the mining block so that your shipment gets stuck in the mempool until it gets pegged from another mining pool to the next mining block but I heard that could not be done forever.


Private Key – How do I change the base point G in the Bitcoin module to generate public keys?

I want to change the code to base G to generate public keys.

import bitcoin

with open("Privkey.txt","r") as f:
    content = f.readlines()
# you may also want to remove whitespace characters like `n` at the end of each line
content = (x.strip() for x in content)

outfile = open("key2pub.txt","w")
for x in content:


This script imports the Bitcoin module.
As you know, secp256k1 uses points on an elliptic curve:

Gx = 0x79be667ef9dcbbac55a06295ce870b07029bfcdb2dce28d959f2815b16f81798
Gy = 0x483ada7726a3c4655da4fbfc0e1108a8fd17b448a68554199c47d08ffb10d4b8

Now I have to change these points into my own. Let us admit to points:

Gx = 0xad4f5dc4a9fba25dd7ecb50b0382c29f52c8fc6826e1d5e4c347eec2010e47ed
Gy = 0xbf1e735b3a83b8bee5d60e1bd441e55b425d4b9ef3c1dca7298e829eec33ea4d

I just start programming in Python 3 and do not understand the modules
How can I change this code?

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