usa – If a US citizen shows up at the US border with no US passport, are immigration officials obligated to help them prove their identity?

(Note: this is US-specific but if other countries have similar laws it would be interesting to hear the analogous situations as well)

I know that the law states that US citizens have the right to enter the US based on their status as a citizen alone, not on on their possession of a passport; that is, it is illegal to deny entry to a US citizen simply because they don’t have their passport.

So for example, if an American shows up to a US border without their passport but with a driver’s license or some other form of ID, it might be a more laborious process, but they will be let in once their identity can be proved.

However, what if hypothetically, someone who claims to be a US citizen shows up with nothing at all? Are immigration officials obligated to do everything they possibly can (e.g. going to that person’s house to get their ID, summoning their acquaintances for interview; I’m honestly not sure what else …) to help the person prove their identity, or in that case are they allowed to turn them away?

usa – If a US citizen shows up at the border with nothing at all, are immigration officials obligated to help them prove their identity?

(Note: this is US-specific but if other countries have similar laws it would be interesting to hear the analogous situations as well)

I know that the law states that US citizens have the right to enter the US based on their status as a citizen alone, not on on their possession of a passport; that is, it is illegal to deny entry to a US citizen simply because they don’t have their passport.

So for example, if an American shows up to a US border without their passport but with a driver’s license or some other form of ID, it might be a more laborious process, but they will be let in once their identity can be proved.

However, what if hypothetically, someone who claims to be a US citizen shows up with nothing at all? Are immigration officials obligated to do everything they possibly can (e.g. going to that person’s house to get their ID, summoning their acquaintances for interview; I’m honestly not sure what else …) to help the person prove their identity, or in that case are they allowed to turn them away?

mathematics – Octagon border algorithm

I work on an open source game since 2 years and I’m very bad at math (it is not every time easy haha). My game permit to move a character on octagon. When character reach border coordinate (colored in yellow), I permit him to travel on a “new octagon”:

enter image description here

So, the algorithm goal is to know if an x, y tile coordinate is on a “yellow” tile, which direction is (North or North-Est or Est …) depending on map width and height.

I wrote this algorithm many times and in two different language, example with Rust:

pub fn get_corner(width: i16, height: i16, new_row_i: i16, new_col_i: i16) -> Option<CornerEnum> {
    let left_col_i_end = width / 3;
    let right_col_i_start = (width / 3) * 2;
    let top_row_i_end = height / 3;
    let bottom_row_i_start = (height / 3) * 2;
    let mut more = if new_row_i >= 0 { new_row_i } else { 0 };
    #(allow(unused_assignments))
    let mut right_col_i = 0;
    #(allow(unused_assignments))
    let mut left_col_i = 0;

    if new_row_i < top_row_i_end {
        right_col_i = right_col_i_start + more;
        left_col_i = left_col_i_end - more;
    } else {
        if new_row_i >= bottom_row_i_start {
            more = (height / 3) - (new_row_i - bottom_row_i_start + 1);
            more = if more >= 0 { more } else { 0 };
            right_col_i = right_col_i_start + more;
            left_col_i = left_col_i_end - more;
        } else {
            left_col_i = left_col_i_end;
            right_col_i = right_col_i_start;
        }
    }

    if new_col_i < left_col_i && new_row_i < top_row_i_end {
        return Some(CornerEnum::TopLeft);
    }
    if new_row_i < 0 && left_col_i <= new_col_i {
        return Some(CornerEnum::Top);
    }
    if new_col_i >= right_col_i && new_row_i < top_row_i_end {
        return Some(CornerEnum::TopRight);
    }
    if new_col_i > width - 1 && top_row_i_end <= new_row_i {
        return Some(CornerEnum::Right);
    }
    if new_col_i >= right_col_i && new_row_i >= bottom_row_i_start {
        return Some(CornerEnum::BottomRight);
    }
    if new_row_i > height - 1 && left_col_i_end <= new_col_i {
        return Some(CornerEnum::Bottom);
    }
    if new_col_i < left_col_i && new_row_i >= bottom_row_i_start {
        return Some(CornerEnum::BottomLeft);
    }
    if new_col_i < 0 && top_row_i_end <= new_row_i {
        return Some(CornerEnum::Left);
    }

    None
}

But it is not working well … I curse my math. I’m sure it’s not that complicated but i fail at each time in two years. So, i’m here to ask help, or for solution. That would be greatly appreciated!

How to email UK border control to know whether I need a transit visa or not

Since the dissolution of the Border Force NICE unit, there’s no Border Force unit that liaises with the general public.

Per TIMATIC, the database used by airlines:

Visa required, except for (…) making a landside transit with a confirmed onward ticket for a flight to a third country that departs before 23:59 the next day. They must (…) have an immigrant visa issued by the USA with a US entry stamp

and

Visa required, except for (…) making a
landside transit with a confirmed onward ticket for a flight
to a third country that departs before 23:59 the next day.
They must have a standalone immigration visa form 155A/155B issued by the USA together with a sealed brown envelope

In other words: if this is when you’re moving to the US, present the sealed envelope at airline check-in and at the UK border. Otherwise, just show the immigrant visa in the passport (with the entry stamp next to it).

The check-in staff at the airport should go by TIMATIC, so refer them to it if necessary. They MUST put “USA” in the “Alien residency” field, or the exemption will not show.

usa – US-Canada border at Blaine-White Rock

There is a sidewalk that runs through the Peace Arch Park, next to the northbound lanes, between the Canadian border checkpoint and the US border checkpoint. As a pedestrian, you should cross into the park and follow the sidewalk across the border and to the checkpoint.

Bicycles can use the roadway to pass by all the cars, but in both directions you will also want to get onto the sidewalk where it crosses the road and go to the pedestrian/bicycle area of the border checkpoint. On both sides, it’s at the far left of the booths.

After crossing, on the US side you can exit I-5 immediately after the checkpoint. On the Canadian side you should take the first left onto Beach Road. It is a dead end for cars, but a pedestrian/cycle path connects it to Marine Drive/8th Ave.

There are no tolls of any sort at this crossing.

Python tkinter text to border problem

I am writing a small GUI program in Python with tkinter.
I'm now having problems with vertical alignment and spacing around text and caption widgets.
There are two cases.

Case one

Vertical distance between the text widget and its edge / highlighting, as you can see in the first 3 text widgets. Even when I use Pady, it gets bigger unevenly

Case two

Vertical alignment from a label to a text widget is also disabled. Here I have no idea how to influence it.

I am using this on (Manjaro) Linux.

Screenshot of the minimal example

import tkinter as tk


class GuiTest():
    def __init__(self, root):
        self.root = root
        root.wm_title("GUI Test")
        root.geometry("800x600")
        root.attributes('-type', 'dialog')

        baseinfo = tk.Frame(root, padx=10, pady=10)
        baseinfo.grid(row = 4, column=4, sticky='EW')

        self.loc = tk.Text(baseinfo, width=10, height=1, bd=0, highlightthickness=1, font=("Courier", "14"))
        self.loc.grid(row=1, column=1)

        self.year = tk.Text(baseinfo, width=15, height=1, bd=1, highlightthickness=1, font=("Courier", "14"))
        self.year.grid(row=1, column=2)


        self.typ = tk.Text(baseinfo, width=10, height=1, bd=0, highlightthickness=1, font=("Courier", "14"), pady='10')
        self.typ.grid(row=2, column=1)


        tk.Label(baseinfo, text="Label").grid(row=3, column=3)

        self.col = tk.Text(baseinfo, width=15, height=1, bd=0, highlightthickness=0, font=("Courier", "11"))
        self.col.grid(row=3, column=4)


        self.loc.insert('end', "Test")
        self.year.insert('end', "another Test")
        self.col.insert('end', "Color")
        self.typ.insert('end', "More Text")
        self.col.configure(background='red')


if __name__ == '__main__':
    root = tk.Tk()
    app = GuiTest(root)
    root.mainloop()

If the code contains large NoNos, please let me know, I'm still a beginner with tkinter.

Thanks a lot

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Double-clicking a sum value cell highlights cells that are part of the formula with a solid or dotted border, which makes the difference

When I double-click a cell that contains a sum value, the cells to be summed are highlighted. Some of these cells contain a border that is a dotted line, others a solid line. I was wondering what the difference between these cells is. Why are the cells that are summed displayed in two different ways?