Google Sheet Column Tick box validation

Complete newbie here, sorry if this sounds silly.

I have 3 columns and 60 rows of tick boxes, I have the tick boxes adding up at the bottom of the sheet.

Question is I do not want a user to tick more than the available ticks per column each column has a maximum amount of tick boxes available.

For example column, A max ticks allowed is 12, B max ticks allowed 7 and C Max 25.

system installation – Install Ubuntu 20.04 (64 bit) in virtual box hangs on install screens

What I am doing

I’m trying to install Ubuntu 20.04 (64 bit) in a virtual box.


Installation hangs on various screens:

  • Sometimes on Language selection (first screen after choosing “install Ubuntu”)
  • Sometimes on “Who are you” (clicking log-in radio buttons is ok, but focussing text boxes is impossible)
  • Sometimes after “continue”-click in partitioning dialog.

What I tried

For Ubuntu 19.04, I could use safe graphics mode(?), that would install from a console-like installation screen (no fancy gui). That way it worked. However, using “safe graphics mode”, doesn’t help now. Besides, it’s exactly the same screens as without “safe graphics”.


XUbuntu 19.10 (64 bit)


online storage – Can I create a direct link in Box?

My workplace provides a corporate account. Using this I can create links to files, but they don’t link directly to the file – they link to a webpage which shows a preview of the file.

This is no use for my current need, because I want to share something that the recipient will download from a linux command line with wget, and if they do that at present they end up with a local copy of the web page instead.

Is there any way to create/share a direct link using as it exists in 2020? Googling reveals something called a “Direct link” in the Box help pages, but it is marked as deprecated, being from the “old Box experience”.

windows 10 – Kali linux installation in Virtual box

I install virtual box in windows 10. I add linux and try to deploy, but through error message as follows

Failed to open a session for the virtual machine Kali.

The virtual machine ‘Kali’ has terminated unexpectedly during startup with exit code 1 (0x1). More details may be available in ‘C:UsersHeart HackerVirtualBox VMsKaliLogsVBoxHardening.log’.

Result Code: E_FAIL (0x80004005) Component: Machine Interface:
IMachine {480cf695-2d8d-4256-9c7c-cce4184fa048}

user behavior – Should custom month and year picker be inside a dialog box?

I’m working on an application that allows users to sort their photos.

Please note that in the mean time, we hit a technical hurdle where an actual calendar is not possible to implement for an MVP. But for now, we’d still at least like the user to be able to input custom time periods, but limited to month and year only.

In addition, we offer other preset date ranges like – Any time, Last 7 days, Last 30 days, etc. When one is selected, it applies the filter immediately. There is no confirmation button.

How should the “Custom” option behave?

(A) When “Custom” is selected, a dialog box appears right below it that allows the user to input custom month and year. When they click “Apply”, the dropdown value changes to their custom selection, and the filter is applied.

This works very similarly to Gmail filtering, just that Gmail has a full calendar date range instead of just month/year filters.

enter image description here

B. When “Custom” is selected, the month/year fields show up right next to it. User selects a month/year, clicks “Apply”, then the filter get applied.

enter image description here

Both are pretty much functionally the same except for the presence of the dialog box in (A).

My concern about (B) is that since the rest of the filters get applied immediately, “Custom” will be the only one that has a button that’s within the same hierarchy. So while it’s functionally the same as (A), the hierarchy of it all feels incorrect.

c# – how to load the ms word document file with all the tools in picture box in

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The State of Low End Box and Low End Talk 2020 – June Update Edition

LowEndBox - Cheap VPS and Dedicated Server HostingIn February 2020 we asked our users what they wanted to see on LowEndBox and LowEndTalk. We got tons of feedback and we listened and then we got to work. Only weeks later, in March 2020, we shared an update with regards to the state of LowEndBox and LowEndTalk, after making significant changes/improvements. Hundreds of community members provided additional feedback via our LowEndTalk community, and time was spent to accommodate further enhancements to our community. 

Since March… we’ve made a lot more improvements, and would like to take the time to highlight some of the work / enhancements for you below!

New Interview Series Added

As part of our efforts to enhance the quality of content being posted on LowEndBox, we introduced a new interview series! The goal is to publish at least one Q&A Interview Session per month. Each interview consists of anywhere from 6 to 10 questions.

We first interviewed Dustin B. Cisneros of RackNerd which turned out to be a great interview.

We then interviewed Nahian Choudhury with Nexus Bytes, which turned out to be very insightful. 

Please follow the interview series by checking back often on the Interviews Category Page.

Upcoming Interviews

We’ve had the opportunity to interview the following providers — we’re excited to post these! These are scheduled for listing any time between now and the year of the year.

  • Q&A with CrossBox.Io on the Software Industry, Small Business, and Making a Difference
  • Q&A with Low End Talk Moderator Raindog308
  • Q&A with MXRoute Owner Jarland Donnell on Email Delivery, the Hosting Industry and a look back
  • Q&A with Datawagon CEO on Being a Young Entrepreneur, Learning on the Job and Becoming Successful
  • Q&A with ProlimeHost Founder and CEO Rounak Jain on 15 Years in the Hosting Industry
  • Q&A with Mailcheap Founder Pavin Joseph on Staying Ahead of the Pack, Evolving with the Market and his Career
  • Q&A with Hostworld Limited Director Andrew Storey on His Company, Insights, and What’s Next
  • Q&A with EstNOC CEO on Web Hosting, Virtualization, and Running a Small Business
  • Q&A with X4B CEO Mathew Heard on DDoS Protection and the Future of the Industry
  • Q&A with Serveria CEO Paul Estrada on the Hosting Industry, and the Right Formula for Success

If you are a hosting provider looking to participate in our interview series, please feel free to get in touch with us via our helpdesk.

New Specializations Section Added

Are you looking for any particular features in a VPS, such as a DDOS protected VPS? How about a High CPU, High RAM or High Storage VPS? NVMe VPS? Well, you can easily sort and filter according to your requirements by just going to and within the green section under the “Specializations” column in the header table.

Social Sharing Fixed on LEB

You can now share LowEndBox posts on LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook with a click of a button.

Community Industry News

We recently called all individuals and hosting providers alike to submit interesting news that’s worthy of being shared. So far we’ve gotten plenty of news worthy bits and we are looking for even more.  

Throughout the coming months, we’ll be publishing interesting, industry-related news (fresh and unique content) delivered to you at

Email List Feature Created

We’ve created an e-mail list where you can be notified by email when we post new offers on cheap VPS, web hosting, dedicated servers, and VPN services. You can also be notified upon postings of new tutorials, editorials, and interviews. Be sure to subscribe and tell us what you think. You can also unsubscribe at any point.


LowEndTalk Updated

As of late April of this year, we announced the upgrade of the Vanilla platform that LowEndTalk was built upon. This provides further performance enhancements and minor feature upgrades. A few more long requested plugins were added at the same time which will provide HTML features for future content.

Additionally, in April we fixed the text editor issue on LowEndTalk – providing further enhancements and posting capabilities on our LowEndTalk forum.

Poll Featured Added on LowEndBox

We added a new plugin (YOP Polls) on LowEndBox, so that we can conduct polls within certain posts. For example, we recently did a poll on “What do you use your VPS for?” and the feature worked exceptionally well. We followed up our first poll with another, this time asking “What type of virtualization do you prefer on your VPS services?” and we got great responses. 

As a result, we will be publishing more fun articles and polls throughout the coming months plus we will follow up most of the polls with an article that evaluates the data gathered so we can all benefit from the knowledge our non-scientific polls provide.

Calling all providers to be featured on LEB

In our new era of LowEndBox, all offer submissions get reviewed on a one-on-one basis, and no offer ticket is ever left unanswered. If you are a hosting provider, or if you are an individual who knows of a hosting provider that would like to be featured, please follow the instructions here to be featured on LowEndBox.

Traffic Surging

Traffic has been trending up the past few months, and for the first time in LEB/LET history, we shared traffic statistics with the community. This is all due to the content enhancements, new features/improvements outlined above, and increased community engagement. And we wouldn’t be able to do it without you – so thank you for being apart of our community!

LowEndBox and LowEndTalk Traffic Rising

Jon Biloh

I’m Jon Biloh and I own LowEndBox and LowEndTalk. I’ve spent my nearly 20 year career in IT building companies and now I’m excited to focus on building and enhancing the community at LowEndBox and LowEndTalk.

opengl – How do I calculate the bounding box for an ortho matrix for Cascaded shadow mapping?

I’ve been trying to get a cascaded shadow mapping system implemented on my engine, though it appears to be that the bounding boxes for the cascades aren’t correct.

The part I’m interested in can be found here, under the function name “CalcOrthoProjs”.

I’ve been trying to understand the matrix multiplications with this answer, and the ogldev variable and function names are kind of confusing me.

This is how I modified ogldev’s function to work with my variables:

void Scene::calcOrthoProjections(Camera &camera, glm::mat4 LightView, std::vector<glm::mat4> &orthoContainer, std::vector<GLfloat> &cascadeEnd) {
GLfloat FOV, nearPlane, farPlane, ratio;
camera.getPerspectiveInfo(FOV, nearPlane, farPlane);
ratio = static_cast<GLfloat>(RE::config.height) / static_cast<GLfloat>(RE::config.width);

GLfloat tanHalfHFov = glm::tan(glm::radians(FOV / 2.0f));
GLfloat tanHalfVFov = glm::tan(glm::radians((FOV*ratio) / 2.0));

for (GLuint i = 0; i < RE::config.r_shadow_cascade_factor; i++) {
    GLfloat xn = cascadeEnd(i)     * tanHalfHFov;
    GLfloat xf = cascadeEnd(i + 1) * tanHalfHFov;
    GLfloat yn = cascadeEnd(i)     * tanHalfVFov;
    GLfloat yf = cascadeEnd(i + 1) * tanHalfVFov;

    //The frustum Corners on View(Camera) space
    glm::vec4 frustumCorners(8){
        //Near Face
        glm::vec4( xn,  yn, cascadeEnd(i), 1.0),
        glm::vec4(-xn,  yn, cascadeEnd(i), 1.0),
        glm::vec4( xn, -yn, cascadeEnd(i), 1.0),
        glm::vec4(-xn, -yn, cascadeEnd(i), 1.0),
        //Far face
        glm::vec4( xf,  yf, cascadeEnd(i + 1), 1.0),
        glm::vec4(-xf,  yf, cascadeEnd(i + 1), 1.0),
        glm::vec4( xf, -yf, cascadeEnd(i + 1), 1.0),
        glm::vec4(-xf, -yf, cascadeEnd(i + 1), 1.0),


    //The frustum Corners in LightSpace
    glm::vec4 frustumCornersL(8);

    GLfloat minX, maxX, minY, maxY, minZ, maxZ;
    minX = minY = minZ = std::numeric_limits<GLfloat>::max();
    maxX = maxY = maxZ = std::numeric_limits<GLfloat>::min();

    glm::mat4 cam = (camera.getProjection() * camera.getView());
    glm::mat4 camInverse = glm::inverse(cam);

    for (GLuint j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
        //View(Camera) space to world space
        glm::vec4 vW = camInverse * frustumCorners(j);

        //world space to light space
        frustumCornersL(j) = LightView * vW;

        minX = min(minX, frustumCornersL(j).x);
        maxX = max(maxX, frustumCornersL(j).x);
        minY = min(minY, frustumCornersL(j).y);
        maxY = max(maxY, frustumCornersL(j).y);
        minZ = min(minZ, frustumCornersL(j).z);
        maxZ = max(maxZ, frustumCornersL(j).z);
    orthoContainer(i) = glm::ortho(minX, maxX, minY, maxY, minZ, maxZ) * LightView;

LightView represents a matrix created with:

glm::LookAt(-glm::normalize(light.direction), glm::vec3(0.0), glm::vec3(0.0, 1.0, 0.0))

camera.getProjection() returns the perspective matrix of the main camera

camera.getView() returns a LookAt at the objective the camera is looking at

The orthoContainer values are then fed into the depth rendering unaltered afterwards (by anything other than the model matrix of each model)

I wrote some comments on how I think the math is done, trying to understand what’s wrong.

The result is a frustum too wide, resulting on low res shadows(even for the closest shadow map):
Low res shadows

and this is the depth map of the closest shadow map:
Depth buffer of the closest shadow map

any insight as to why this isn’t working, or any other best practice advice, is welcome. Thanks in advance!

php – Criar select box com dados dinamicos

Bom dia,

queria implementar no meu projeto um select box mas em que as opções são a coluna “name” de outra tabela de base de dados, isto é, estou a criar um objeto e é possivel associar um porduto criado anteriormente através da select box que terá sempre o name dos produtos registados na base de dados. Depois de selecionar a opção pretendida a aplicação vai guardar o id do produto.

Será que alguem me consegue ajudar?