digital signature – Why are LMS and XMSS no candidates in the Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization process?

Why are Leighton-Micali Signature Scheme (LMS) and eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme (XMSS) no candidates in the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization process?
Both are mentioned in the final draft of Recommendation for Stateful Hash-Based Signature Schemes.

I was expecting that both algorithms are candidates in the standardization process as well, but it seems that they weren’t even submitted. Can anyone explain why? If they are not considered as candidates for a new standard why does the Recommendation for Stateful Hash-Based Signature Schemes exist and mention exactly those two algorithms?

Is the recommendation just a temporary standard until the standardization process is finished?

dnd 5e – Can the Rats of a Hat of Vermin be valid candidates to make a Swarm of Rats from a Pipe of the Sewers?

Full disclosure : this is a silly question, not to be taken too seriously.

A Hat of Vermin can be used to conjure up to 3 rats :

This hat has 3 charges. While holding the hat, you can use an action to expend 1 of its charges and speak a command word that summons your choice of a bat, a frog, or a rat. The summoned creature magically appears in the hat and tries to get away from you as quickly as possible. The creature is neither friendly nor hostile, and it isn’t under your control. It behaves as an ordinary creature of its kind and disappears after 1 hour or when it drops to 0 hit points. The hat regains all expended charges daily at dawn.

Pipes of the Sewers can be used to summon forth a Swarm of Rats if enough rats are around :

The pipes have 3 charges. If you play the pipes as an action, you can use a bonus action to expend 1 to 3 charges, calling forth one swarm of rats with each expended charge, provided that enough rats are within half a mile of you to be called in this fashion (as determined by the DM). If there aren’t enough rats to form a swarm, the charge is wasted. Called swarms move toward the music by the shortest available route but aren’t under your control otherwise. The pipes regain 1d3 expended charges daily at dawn.

Now, imagine the following situation : an adventurer, in the middle of a rat-less environment (like a desert) but carrying Pipes of the Sewers and no less than EIGHT Hats of Vermin. He promptly decides to spend the next 2 and a half minutes summoning all 24 rats from the Hats. He then plays the Pipes and attempts to use a charge, with the intent of “gathering” the 24 skittering rats into one convenient swarm (I went with 24 rats, because a Swarm has 24hp, which may or may not represent the amount of individual rats in it, who knows). Would this needlessly complex chain of events, indeed, allow our Piper to “make” a Swarm ?

real analysis – Natural candidates for sub half-exponential which limit to half-exponential function

There is no closed form candidates for half-exponential functions “Closed-form” functions with half-exponential growth.

However sub-halfexponentials (functions whose composition grows slower than exponential) have lot of candidates.

Eg: $n$ itself.

A little thought gives $f(0,a,n)={n^a}$, $f(1,a,n)={2^{(log n)^a}}$, $f(2,a,n)={2^{2^{(loglog n)^a}}}$, $dots$, $f(k,a,n)={2^{^{dots}{^{{2^{(underbrace{logdotslog}_{text{k }} n)^a}}}}}}$ etc. at fixed $ain(1,infty)$ and fixed $kinmathbb Zcap(1,infty)$.

The functions grow faster as $k$ increases.
Define $g(a,n)=lim_{krightarrowinfty}f(k,a,n)$.

  1. Is $g(a,n)$ the half-exponential function? That is, does $g(a,g(a,n))=2^{theta(n)}$ hold at every $ain(0,1)$?
  1. Are there other natural sequence of function candidates $h(k,n)$ (not of form form $f(k,a’,n)$ where $a’in(0,a)$) with
    $$f(k,a,n)ll h(k,n)ll f(k+1,a,n)$$
    at every fixed $kinmathbb Zcap(1,infty)$?

The optimized way to find the best k leading candidates from an unsorted hash map in Python

I have to write a method that accepts a timestamp and accepts a series of votes k leading candidates within this timestamp duration. I came up with the following solution

Here is the input to the methods:

votes = ({'candidate':'a', 'timestamp':2},{'candidate':'c', 'timestamp': 5},{'candidate':'c', 'timestamp': 12})

timestamp = 5

k = 5

And the method to solve the problem

def leading_candidates(votes, timestamp,k):

    candidates = {}
    leading_candidates = ()

    for vote in votes:
        if vote('timestamp') <= timestamp:
            if vote('candidate') not in candidates:
                candidates(vote('candidate')) = 1
                candidates(vote('candidate')) += 1

    sorted_votes = sorted(candidates.values())(:k)

    for candidate in candidates:
        if candidates(candidate) in sorted_votes:

    return leading_candidates    

print(leading_candidates(votes, timestamp, 2))

As you can see, the second solution has a time complexity of O (kn), where k is the time it takes to find the index in the sorted array of the leading candidates, from sorting it can be at least O (nlogn).

Is there any way to get it going with O (n)?

Networking – How can two machines with identical Ubuntu versions display different installation candidates for one package (Network Manager)?

I get two different responses to the command on these two computers, which are based on the same Lubuntu version but have different installation and uninstallation protocols.
sudo apt-get install --dry-run network-manager
One issue:
network-manager is already the newest version (1.10.6.-2ubuntu1.2)
The other outputs:
network-manager is already the newest version (1.10.14.-0ubuntu2)
The output for the next commands is identical:
lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description: Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS
Release: 18.04
Codename: bionic
uname -a
Linux (machine-name) #84-Ubuntu SMP Thu Dec 19 08:06:00 UTC 2019 i686 i686 i686 GNU/Linux

How can you get another candidate? Is this based on the currently installed packages and can the dependencies be displayed?

Good NP-complete reduction candidates for disjoint bilinear programs

Given a disjoint bilinear program $ max {x ^ TQy: x in X, y in Y } $With $ Q $ be a matrix and $ X $ and $ Y $ specific polytops (i.e. like X = backpack polytope or Y = stable solid polytope)

What are some good NP-complete problems that look similar and are known to be NP-complete? Classic problem like backpack, stable set are difficult because they do not have this disjoint product feature?

How do the Republicans think so many candidates are running for the Democratic nomination?

I do not like it. Most female leaders in history were poor leaders. The greatest civilizations in history, including the United States, had all or almost all men as leaders.

The US is the wealthiest nation ever. So much wealth has been created, cures for diseases, achievements like men's moon shooting, etc. Millions of people, including my ancestors, have gathered here to have the opportunity for a better life.

Every single president and the great majority of politicians were men. Also Christian men.

But apparently we need female presidents now or we will collapse, I think. For reasons, you know?

That being said, a woman like Margaret Thatcher would rather be a screaming idiot and would-be communist like Bernie Sanders.

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