There are many myths about players who played professionally before releasing the basic strategy for one-pack games of Americans Cantey, McDermott, Maisel and Baldwin in 1958. But everything that was before them remains a legend. The four statisticians only performed their calculations with the help of a handheld computer. However, it was their publication in the American Journal of the American Statistical Association that caused a stir among both players and statisticians, and blackjack was considered a game that an ordinary player could probably win. Encouraged by the popularity of the article in the magazine, which was copied and memorized by many players, the authors published a book titled "Winning Blackjack". Nowadays, this book is a rare edition and enriches the home library of many professional players.
In 1962 Edward Thorp calculated and published not only the basic gambling strategy but also card counting with the help of computer technologies in his book Beat The Dealer. Thorp states that blackjack is different from roulette, craps and other gambling. The outcome of each hand in blackjack depends on the previous deal – it is really important which cards were withdrawn from the game and which ones remained in the pack. Most of the data Thorp calculates is still accurate, but any serious modern player should read this book for historical reasons only.
The 10-Count-System Thorp system was designed for one-pack games that had great success in all of Nevada's casinos. It was extremely difficult to learn, so most players gave up. The Nevada casinos, however, have restricted some rules, for example doubling to just 11 points. The media told the world about it, and Thorp became known around the world for his book, and the casinos that proved disadvantaged had to adhere to earlier rules. Realizing that under such circumstances, many card counters would try to defeat the house, gambling house operators introduced two methods – blending after taking off the blank card and playing multiple card games.
Thorp's systems have been very difficult to use in practice. But for the computer conference in Las Vegas in 1963, the game would remain at the same level. On a whim, the conference organizers decided to hold a panel discussion on "Using Computers in Games of Fortune and Skill". It was just a whim of the organizers to include a section "Using Computers in Gambling and Skill Games". Thorp has been appointed chair of the panel and expert on various casino games, including blackjack, roulette and baccarat. The room filled up and was full of computer gamers. Hundreds of conference participants pressed and pressed to get into the room.
The crowd, of course, had been attracted to Thorp. They expected revelations about the game, expecting to use his mediated wisdom immediately after the session to kill at the blackjack tables.
After one or two other presentations that mainly corrected and modified Thorp, Harvey Dubner was introduced. He described the approach. Dubner counted the remaining high cards (10, J, Q, K, A) and low cards (2,3,4,5,6) while the cards were being played, and divided the difference by the total number of cards left. He called the result the high-low ratio. His presentation was received enthusiastically by the crowd, who was just standing there, and he was greeted with a round of applause. Here, many said, is finally a system that is practical and that can actually be used in the real world of casino gaming. Thorp added the "High-Low" system to Beat the Dealer's second issue in 1966 and has since published over 100 books on blackjack, team games, hidden computers, shuffle tracking and sleepless nights on casino securities around the world released.