bitcoin core – How does the next block election in Blockchain work?

In the mining process, each miner creates a block of the transactions found in the pool and starts calculating the nonce. The higher hashed miner first quits the job and announces the block.

When the process starts, the miners start the calculation again (the slowest and the fastest). Imagine we have 2 mine pools and the slower takes 2 hours to calculate a nonce, and the faster 2 minutes will have the window of 10 minutes a winner and the slower ones will have to start the calculation again.

How does the lottery work to solve this problem?

Transactions – Signrawtransaction does not work on bitcoin core V0.17.1

I'm having trouble signing a transaction on the Bitcoin core because it looks like the Signraw transaction is not working anymore.

I get the following error message:

signrawtransaction is deprecated and will be completely removed in v0.18. To use signrawtransaction in v0.17, restart bitcoind with -deprecatedrpc = signrawtransaction.
Projects should transition to using signrawtransactionwithkey and signraw transactionwithwallet before upgrading to v0.18 (code -32).

Any advice on what to do? Tahnks in advance!

Arsenal – Bitcoin Core & # 39; can not open the file & # 39; causes the reindexing to fail

I've recently had difficulty sending Bitcoin from my Armory Wallet (0.96.5) to another account. Sending bitcoin did not work because the wallet could not be synchronized with the blockchain. As Armory relies on the connection managed by the Bitcoin Core client, Bitcoin-qt or Bitcoind, it became clear that the error was caused by the Bitcoin core clients (0.17.1). The command ./bitcoin-qt --reindex was issued after Armory shut down, but repeatedly failed with entries in debug.log that had snippets like the following immediately before shutdown:

2019-01-15T23: 17: 07Z Pre-assignment up to position 0x1000000 in rev01636.dat
2019-01-15Taa: 17: 07Ehr updated aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa6a6e6e618189eeaaaaaaaaa6a65618189e4a104a6a65618189e4a10e106a65618189e4a106a65618189e4a104a6a65618189e4a104a06a65618189eea = a020a00618189e4a104a106a65618189ee = a = 02020c00000 log2_work = 90.224133 tx = 371925681
2019-01-15Taa: 17: 7aaaaaaaa7aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa8aaaaa8aeaa8aeaa8eaaaa8aaaaa8ischem and 9aaaaaaa8a8aaaaaaaischaucha998aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa8aaaa8aaaaaa8aaaa8aaaaa8a8aaaaaa8a8aaaaaaischem ...
2019-01-15T23: 17: 07Z Imported Mempool transactions from disk: 1 succeeded, 0 failed, 0 expired, 0 already exists
2019-01-15T23: 17: 09Z Leaving block file 1636: CBlockFileInfo (blocks = 144, size = 133976289, heights = 557764 ... 558003, time = 2019-01-09 ... 2019-01-11)
2019-01-15T23: 17: 09Z File /home/**/.bitcoin/blocks/blk01637.dat can not be opened
2019-01-15T23: 17: 09Z File /home/**/.bitcoin/blocks/blk01637.dat can not be opened
2019-01-15T23: 17: 09Z ERROR: WriteBlockToDisk: OpenBlockFile failed
2019-01-15T23: 17: 09Z *** Block could not be written
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z ERROR: ProcessNewBlock: AcceptBlock FAILED (AcceptBlock: position could not be found to write new block to disk (code 0))
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z for: thread interrupt
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Shutdown: In progress ...
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Addcon thread exit
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Opencon thread exit
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Torcontrol thread output
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z net thread output
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z msghand thread output
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Scheduler thread interrupt
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Dumped mempool: 3e-06s for copying, 0.000992s for dumping
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z File /home/**/.bitcoin/blocks/blk01637.dat can not be opened
2019-01-15T23: 39: 55Z File /home/**/.bitcoin/blocks/blk01637.dat can not be opened
2019-01-15T23: 39: 56Z [default wallet] Release wallet
2019-01-15T23: 39: 56Z shutdown: done

What can you do if a file opening error causes reindexing to fail?

bitcoin core – What are the cryptocurrencies of P2P technology?

They seem to ask two different questions.

While all decentralized crypto-currencies use P2P networks to communicate transactions and maintain consensus to avoid duplication. Not all P2P technologies use cryptocurrencies.

As for the differences between the technologies you mentioned.

  • IPFS – A distributed hash table for file sharing accessible via HTTP. It is not consensual and does not guarantee the availability of data.
  • Storj – Decentralized storage with distributed hashtables, whose whitepaper recognizes the need for incentives, but their white papers seem to avoid consensus on enforcing incentives.
  • PPIO – Decentralized storage network with a block-chain consensus mechanism to provide a cryptocurrency as an incentive for file replication distribution. However, they do not seem to have released the software on their github https://github.com/ppio
  • Sia – A cryptocurrency that allows users to rent storage space that forces payment through intelligent contracts.

Bitcoin Core – How Does an SPV Client Make a Transaction That Will Be Sent?

In general, the SPV wallet receives the transaction and feature protection from a validating full node when sending money to an address controlled by the wallet.

The merkle-proof guarantees that the transaction with the output that can be output from the wallet is passed to the header of the local (strong) header chain. Since the wallet controls the private keys for this output, it is indexed as a local UTXO without knowing the full UTXO set on the validation node.

If you spend money on another address, the local wallet will search for an optimal amount of local UTXOs for that transaction. Prevout points that can be spent by the wallet are indexed as previously mentioned. All other transaction fields that you describe are independent of UTXO or can be derived from the indexed previous transaction (for example, timeouts enforced by CSV / CLTV output script operations). The destination address tells the wallet which output should be output, as is the case with all other wallet types (P2PKH, P2WPKH, P2SH, P2WSH, etc.).

The SPV purse described above necessarily exposes the addresses it is interested in to receive audit evidence from the validation node. The SPV client has several techniques to improve privacy and disseminate less information at specific bandwidth costs.

  • Client-side filters (eg Bloom filter (no longer recommended))
  • Server-side filters (eg Neutrino)

Arsenal – Bitcoin Core & # 39; can not open the file & # 39; causes the reindexing to fail. Solved

I've recently had difficulty sending Bitcoin from my Armory Wallet (0.96.5) to another account. Sending bitcoin did not work because the wallet could not be synchronized with the blockchain. As Armory relies on the connection managed by the Bitcoin Core client, Bitcoin-qt or Bitcoind, it became clear that the error was caused by the Bitcoin core clients (0.17.1). The command ./bitcoin-qt --reindex was issued after Armory shut down, but repeatedly failed with entries in debug.log that had snippets like the following immediately before shutdown:

2019-01-15T23: 17: 07Z Pre-assignment up to position 0x1000000 in rev01636.dat
2019-01-15Taa: 17: 07Ehr updated aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa6a6e6e618189eeaaaaaaaaa6a65618189e4a104a6a65618189e4a10e106a65618189e4a106a65618189e4a104a6a65618189e4a104a06a65618189eea = a020a00618189e4a104a106a65618189ee = a = 02020c00000 log2_work = 90.224133 tx = 371925681
2019-01-15Taa: 17: 7aaaaaaaa7aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa8aaaaa8aeaa8aeaa8eaaaa8aaaaa8ischem and 9aaaaaaa8a8aaaaaaaischaucha998aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa8aaaa8aaaaaa8aaaa8aaaaa8a8aaaaaa8a8aaaaaaischem ...
2019-01-15T23: 17: 07Z Imported Mempool transactions from disk: 1 succeeded, 0 failed, 0 expired, 0 already exists
2019-01-15T23: 17: 09Z Leaving block file 1636: CBlockFileInfo (blocks = 144, size = 133976289, heights = 557764 ... 558003, time = 2019-01-09 ... 2019-01-11)
2019-01-15T23: 17: 09Z File /home/kipp/.bitcoin/blocks/blk01637.dat can not be opened
2019-01-15T23: 17: 09Z File /home/kipp/.bitcoin/blocks/blk01637.dat can not be opened
2019-01-15T23: 17: 09Z ERROR: WriteBlockToDisk: OpenBlockFile failed
2019-01-15T23: 17: 09Z *** Block could not be written
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 37: 10Z Socket Timeout: 1201s
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z ERROR: ProcessNewBlock: AcceptBlock FAILED (AcceptBlock: position could not be found to write new block to disk (code 0))
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z for: thread interrupt
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Shutdown: In progress ...
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Addcon thread exit
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Opencon thread exit
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Torcontrol thread output
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z net thread output
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z msghand thread output
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Scheduler Thread Interrupt
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z Dumped mempool: 3e-06s for copying, 0.000992s for dumping
2019-01-15T23: 39: 47Z File /home/kipp/.bitcoin/blocks/blk01637.dat can not be opened
2019-01-15T23: 39: 55Z File /home/kipp/.bitcoin/blocks/blk01637.dat can not be opened
2019-01-15T23: 39: 56Z [default wallet] Release wallet
2019-01-15T23: 39: 56Z shutdown: done

A comprehensive overview of Google searches related to the error reading blocknnnnn.dat file implied data corruption on disk or in files such as wallet.dat and / or blocknnnn.dat. In my case, however, I could exclude these factors. I excluded a hard drive failure with a clone of my virtual machine. I also ruled out corruption in the wallet.dat by indexing a replaced wallet.dat that has been working well lately. In this case, the file could not be opened blk1637.dat, After about four unsuccessful attempts to download a working blockchain, I looked at the file permissions for the broken block and found that file permissions are only allowed for root users. Previous blocks were authorized for a non-root user. The obvious solution to this lack of uniformity of file permissions was to adjust the file permission settings for the failed file, but making this change and then indexing the chain again did not work because the same error occurred when the block file was opened. I noticed a comment someone made in a Google search that init.cpp used the umask command in the client software to change file permissions on the block files. The use of the sudo command saved me in this situation. After all, I have everything in a virtual machine environment and this security risk was nominal. Run the command in the appropriate folder sudo ./bitcoin-qtWait for the synchronization to complete and start Armory.

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