linux – Peremenenat solution for Debian XFCE missing desktop

I have debian 9 running with XFCE desktop. However, after a while, the desktop when missing. This happened to me while using debian 10 also. My solution was to use xfdesktop -R in terminal and restart the desktop. But I am having to run this command pretty often. Is there anyway to do a complete fix to my issue?

Would anyone be able to help me in this regard.

Thanks & Best Regards


apt – How to split a Debian package and install the split off one automatically

I have a Debian package, said A, and I would like to move some files out of A and create a new package B for the split off files.

A is installed on the system and could be upgraded by “apt dist-upgrade”. Is there any way to automatically “install” B when I upgrade A by “apt install” or “apt dist-upgrade”?

I checked the PackageTransition page and my scenario is exactly the case #7. No dependency between package A & B, so I can’t let A depend on B.

debian – Interactions between iptables and ip route configurations

I started learning routing under Linux and confused about configurations that are done using iptables and ip route. I saw a diagram here and here that are about stages that iptables chains and rules activated and used. In these diagrams, in multiple section routing is mentioned. I thought it’s when ip route‘s routes get involved.

Q: I need to know what routes/part of routing (routes that is displayed with command ip route) is activated/used and in what stages?

networking – Debian KVM Server – Add Secondary Subnet

I have a Debian 10 server that I want to set up as a KVM host to set up virtual machines for myself.

The server itself has a static IP like so:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
iface lo inet6 loopback

auto enp35s0
iface enp35s0 inet static
  # route via
  up route add -net netmask gw dev enp35s0

iface enp35s0 inet6 static
  address 2a01:4f9:4a:37d5::2
  netmask 64
  gateway fe80::1

I’m not sure what these lines do and how they affect my situation:

# route via
up route add -net netmask gw dev enp35s0

I have been given a secondary subnet that has been “statically routed on the IP”, that I intend to allocate to the guests. The details are:

  • Subnet:
  • CIDR: /29
  • Netmask:
  • Broadcast:

I have a guess that I would need to configure my interfaces file to be like so:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto enp35s0
iface enp35s0 inet manual

auto kvmbr0
iface kvmbr0 inet static
    bridge_ports enp35s0
    bridge_stp off
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_maxwait 0

However, I’m not sure this will “work” and even if it did, whether it would be wasting one or more IP addresses (e.g. my initial static IP at What is the ideal way for me to set it up so that my KVM host uses the static IP that was initially assigned to it, but my KVM guests are directly accessible from the internet if I manually assign them IPs within the secondary subnet?

Enable http2 on Debian 11 Bullseye and Apache 2.4.41

I’m testing Debian 11 Bullseye with Apache 2.4.41 and I’m trying to activate HTTP2

I did some things :

sudo a2enmod http2

It returns : Module http2 already enabled

Then I put this line on my SSL/HTTPS virtualhost :

Protocols h2 h2c http/1.1

After having restarted the Apache service, my test is not Ok and returns HTTP/1.1 request. I tested with a curl command and via

Is there a problem with the version of Debian or Apache ? Or something else ?

Force to use MAC address as DHCP client ID on Debian Buster

Debian Buster dhclient randomly uses its MAC address or a generated DUID-LLT as its DHCP client ID.

Can I force it to always use MAC address instead of the generated DUID-LLT?

I know the option send dhcp-client-identifier = xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx;, but it forces me to configure every interface manually with its own MAC address, something I prefer to avoid if possible.

As I said before, it is doing it already, but randomly.

Can it be forced to do it always?

networking – Danted on Debian creates strange listening port

I installed danted v1.4.2 on Debian 10 (buster) and I observe danted created few raw sockets and uses them for some purposes. The ss -f inet -an output looks the following way:

Netid   State    Recv-Q   Send-Q   Local Address:Port   Peer Address:Port    
???     UNCONN   0        0     *
???     UNCONN   0        0     *

If I use old school netstat -an, I see “raw” where ss prints “???”. All the rest is identical. BTW, netstat prints state of the sockets as 7, while ss says it is UNCONN.

I spent quite a few hours googling for this behavior, but did not get any results. Danted works and forwards traffic as expected. The only thing is few raw sockets. The biggest issue with these raw sockets is their listening address. As I understand, they configured to listen on port 1 on all interfaces I have on my experimental server. Per my understanding, this is a security breach, since anyone could try to connect to it and I don’t have any good idea how to protect it.

  • Is this some error in danted configuration?
  • If not, is there any way to protect these ports from malicious connect attempts?
  • If answer on second question is yes, then – how?

php – Debian: Cannot install php7.4-curl — depends not installable

I recently upgraded from debian9 (stretch) to debian10 (buster). Which also includes upgrading to php7.4. For some reason php-curl cannot install.

I run apt install php7.4-curl and the error I get is:

Some packages could not be installed. This may mean that you have
requested an impossible situation or if you are using the unstable
distribution that some required packages have not yet been created
or been moved out of Incoming.
The following information may help to resolve the situation:

The following packages have unmet dependencies:
 php7.4-curl : Depends: libcurl3 (>= 7.44.0) but it is not installable
E: Unable to correct problems, you have held broken packages.

I cannot see any held packages, anywhere. I have tried:

apt-mark showhold
dpkg --audit
dpkg --configure -a
apt-get install -f
apt-get clean
apt-get update
apt-get autoremove

I have also tried removing curl, purge, autoremove, and then reinstall. Same thing.

I try installing libcurl3

Package libcurl3 is not available, but is referred to by another package.
This may mean that the package is missing, has been obsoleted, or
is only available from another source
However the following packages replace it:

linux – Set HiDPI on 2 monitors with different definitions under Debian + Xorg

I set up my brand new Lenovo X1 Carbon 7th with Debian Bullseye and Xorg. The problem I have (among other things already fixed) is the scaling factor between the primary screen and the external monitor, since the X1 is equipped with a damn 4k screen.
While Gnome manages very well to scale the main display to 200%, it uses the same factor as the external monitor, which is a full HD monitor. Does anyone know how to get 100% on the external monitor and 200% on the primary?
I use Debian Bullseye with Xorg and Gnome.
Thanks in advance.