bash – noob had debian / gnome 3.32 installed on pop-1904

Under my .desktop 19.04 Ubuntu I had accidentally installed Debian and then Gnome 3.32 and created a new profile of Debian that contains bash logs and terminal jargon that I do not understand

Do I have to, if a reinstall deletes all Debian software and corrects my launcher?

Or-How could I remove Debian from the 19.01 Gnome shell?
Many Thanks

Fstab NFS mounts fail because they start before the network is available in Debian Buster (10)

I recently upgraded Debian Stretch (9) to Debian Buster (10). Since then, my NFS deployments by fstab fail because they are started before the network is available, as noted in the boot log.

I tried with _netdev in the entry nfs but this has nothing. Of course, I can include the NFS file system sudo mount -a, Is there a way around this problem?

networking.service fails in Debian Buster

networking.service can not call eth0: 2 and eth0: 3, but my configuration seems to be correct.

I tried different things and renamed the network card from ens3 to eth0

/ etc / network / interfaces:

car lo
iface lo inet loopback

allow-hotplug eth0

car eth0
iface eth0 inet static
Address xx.xxx.xxx.xxx/22
Gateway xx.xxx.xxx.x

allow-hotplug eth0: 1
car eth0: 1
iface eth0: 1 inet6 static
Address 2a03: xxxx: x: xxxx :: 1000/64
gateway fe80 :: 1

allow-hotplug eth0: 2
iface eth0: 2 inet6 static
Address 2a03: xxxx: x: xxxx :: 2000/64
gateway fe80 :: 1

allow-hotplug eth0: 3
iface eth0: 3 inet6 static
Address 2a03: xxxx: x: xxxx :: 3000/64
gateway fe80 :: 1

expected:

When booting, eth0 and eth0: 1 are called automatically.

ifup eth0: 2 and ifup eth0: 3 call the other NICs

Indeed:

ifup eth0: 2
RTNETLINK answers: file exists
ifup: eth0: 2 could not be called

ifup eth0: 3
RTNETLINK answers: file exists
ifup: eth0: 3 could not be called

There is an ERROR, but despite the error, the adapter is loaded and IPv6 works.

Even if I add

car eth0: 2

car eth0: 3

networking.service fails on boot:





● networking.service - Increase network interfaces
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/networking.service; enabled; vendor preference: enabled)
Active: failed (result: exit code) since Fri 2019-07-19 20:29:26 CEST; 1min 21s ago
Docs: man: interfaces (5)
Process: 409 ExecStart = / sbin / ifup -a --read-environment (code = stopped, status = 1 / FAILURE)
Main PID: 409 (code = exit, status = 1 / ERROR)
July 19 20:29:24 root systemd[1]: Starting Raise Network Interfaces ...
July 19 20:29:24 root ifup[409]: ifup: Waiting for Lock for /run/network/ifstate.eth0
July 19 20:29:26 root ifup[409]: Waiting for Dad ... Done
July 19 20:29:26 root ifup[409]: RTNETLINK answers: file exists
July 19 20:29:26 root ifup[409]: ifup: eth0: 2 could not be called
July 19 20:29:26 root ifup[409]: RTNETLINK answers: file exists
July 19 20:29:26 root ifup[409]: ifup: eth0: 3 could not be called
July 19 20:29:26 root systemd[1]: networking.service: main process finished, code = stopped, status = 1 / FAILURE
July 19 20:29:26 root systemd[1]: networking.service: error with result & # 39; exit code & # 39 ;.
July 19 20:29:26 root systemd[1]: Start of Raise Network Interfaces Failed.

Although networking.service fails, all IPv6 work.

I have no idea what the problem is.

debian – iptables: no chain / destination / match with this name if the same rule is executed multiple times

I have a very strange problem. I'm running the same script to set it up iptables for a few months. Today I tried to run it on a new Debian VM, but there is a problem. When a rule is run multiple times, the following is returned:

iptables: No chain / destination / match with this name.

One of the rules is:

iptables -t nat -D OUTPUT -d 192.168.1.2 -p tcp -dport http -j REDIRECT --to-port 8080

The goal is to forward the TCP traffic 192.168.1.2 from 80 to 8080.

Here is the edition of iptables -L:

Chain INPUT (Policy ACCEPT)
Target protocol Source destination

Chain FORWARD (Policy ACCEPT)
Target protocol Source destination

Chain OUTPUT (Policy ACCEPT)
Target protocol Source destination         

Here is the edition of iptables -L -t nat:

Chain PREROUTING (Policy ACCEPT)
Target protocol Source destination
REDIRECT TCP - Anywhere, Anywhere TCP / IP: http Redir Ports 8080

Chain INPUT (Policy ACCEPT)
Target protocol Source destination

Chain OUTPUT (Policy ACCEPT)
Target protocol Source destination
REDIRECT tcp - everywhere 192.168.1.2 tcp dpt: http redir ports 8080
REDIRECT tcp - everywhere dblab-dev-01 tcp dpt: https forward ports 8443
REDIRECT tcp - everywhere dblab-dev-01 tcp dpt: http redir ports 8080

Chain POSTROUTING (Policy ACCEPT)
Target protocol Source destination         

We can see that the above rule has been applied correctly.

Does anyone have any idea where the problem could come from?

Many Thanks!

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Debian can not read the font file

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apt – Debian Jessie can not be upgraded to stable because of deb.sury PHP PPA

I'm trying to update my Linode Jessie instance to Stable by following this tutorial. I have updated my /etc/apt/sources.list File, and am up to $ sudo apt update Step. When I enter this command, I get the following:

Click http://mirrors.linode.com stable InRelease
Hit http://mirrors.linode.com stable-updates InRelease
Ign http://nyc2.mirrors.digitalocean.com stable InRelease
Hit http://archive.debian.org jessie-backports InRelease
Ign http://nyc2.mirrors.digitalocean.com stable release.gpg
Ign http://nyc2.mirrors.digitalocean.com stable version
Get: 1 http://security.debian.org stable / updates InRelease [39.1 kB]            
Get: 2 https://packages.sury.org stable InRelease
Ign https://packages.sury.org stable InRelease
Get: 3 http://mirrors.linode.com stable / main sources [7,827 kB]                 
W: No public key is available for the following key IDs:
648ACFD622F3D138
NO_PUBKEY DCC9EFBF77E11517
W: No public key is available for the following key IDs:
648ACFD622F3D138
E: The sharing file for http://archive.debian.org/debian/dists/jessie-backports/InRelease has expired (invalid since 145d 4h 29min 16s). Updates for this repository are not applied.

My aforementioned /etc/apt/sources.list File is:

#

# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 8.3.0 _Jessie_ - Official Multi-architecture amd6$

#deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 8.3.0 _Jessie_ - Official Multi-architecture amd64$

deb http://mirrors.linode.com/debian/ stable main
deb-src http://mirrors.linode.com/debian/ stable main

deb http://security.debian.org/ stable/updates main
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ stable/updates main

# jessie-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://mirrors.linode.com/debian/ stable-updates main
deb [arch=i386,ppc64el,amd64] http://nyc2.mirrors.digitalocean.com/mariadb/repo/10.2/debian stable main
# deb-src [arch=i386,ppc64el,amd64] http://nyc2.mirrors.digitalocean.com/mariadb/repo/10.2/debian stable main

deb-src http://mirrors.linode.com/debian/stable-updates main

During my research on PPAs, I also updated my file `/etc/apt/sources.list.d/php.list as follows:

deb https://packages.sury.org/php/ stable main

The error remains.

Is there a way to update this PPA so that it can be used with Debian Stable? Or is there another way around this problem?

Date – Time differences between Debian GNU and Linux

I'm trying to find out why my Linux has this time difference:

cmd1: date

out1: Sun 14 Jul 2019 00:45:59 CDT

cmd2: hwclock

out2: 2019-07-14 00: 46: 48.389904-04: 00

cmd3: timedatectl

out 3:

Local time: Sun 2019-07-14 01:47:17 -03 [correct time!]

World Time: Sun 2019-07-14 04:47:17 UTC

RTC Time: Sun 2019-07-14 04:47:17

Time Zone: America / Montevideo (-03, -0300)

System clock synchronized: yes

NTP service: active

RTC in local TZ: no

I have used Debian Strech with Awesome WM with the same problem now in Debian Buster with i3 … the same problem.

Help please!

Greetings…

LEMP stack installation on Debian 9




This tutorial will show you how to install and configure the LEMP stack on your VPS / LowEndBox by running Debian 9.

LEMP stands for Linux NGinx MySQL PHP and is a lightweight version of the LAMP stack that includes the following ONPache instead of nginx. You will find that it is not written that way LNMPand that's because of the pronunciation of the word nginx (engine-X).

LEMP consumes far fewer resources than the LAMP stack and is therefore better suited for cheap VPS machines and low-end boxes. It is 2.5 times faster under heavy load, according to benchmarks. To make things even faster, we will install MariaDB instead of MySQL, since it is much faster, but still fully compatible with the original MySQL.

What we will treat

  • Install nginx
  • Basics of Nginx configuration
  • Set up firewall
  • Install and configure MariaDB
  • Install the latest PHP
  • Configure Nginx to deploy PHP files
  • Test the installed stack
  • (With a domain) Secure the site with Let's Encrypt certificates

requirements

We will install and set up the LEMP stack on Debian 9:

  • Starting with a clean VPS with
  • At least 512 MB RAM
  • 15 GB of free space
  • You need root user access
  • You must have DNS records for your domain (example.com in this tutorial) is already set up to point to your VPS to install Let's Encrypt certificates. If you do not already have one, access your IP address instead and skip the last step

Step 1: Install Nginx

Installation and firewall setup

First log in to your server as root or as another account with sudo privileges. Then update the cache of your package manager:

sudo apt update

Install Nginx by running the following command:

sudo apt install nginx -y

Nginx is now installed. Switch to your domain in your browser (or IP address if you do not have one). The default welcome page for Nginx is displayed:

Nginx-default page

This means that Nginx has been successfully installed. Activate it via systemctl to start it each time you start the server:

sudo systemctl enable nginx

For maximum security you will now install & c (uncomplicated firewall) and configure it to allow HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and SSH connections and deny all others:

sudo apt install ufw -y
sudo ufw & # 39; nginx full & # 39; allow
sudo ufw allow OpenSSH
sudo ufw allow SSH
sudo ufw allow ftp

Enable it (enable it) by doing the following:

sudo ufw activate

reply y If prompted, reload the site in your browser. If you're still seeing the same welcome page, you've configured your firewall correctly. If an error occurs (for example, access denied), disable the firewall:

sudo ufw disable

and check its configuration:

sudo ufw status

You will see a list of activated profiles. If you do not see the above, run the commands again and enable them again.

configuration directories

Under Debian 9, Nginx saves his construction Files under / etc / nginxand is the default directory for static file deployment / usr / share / nginx / html, This will be important in the later steps if we need to change the configuration and add new files.

Step 2: Install MariaDB

Install MariaDB (it is available by default for apt):

sudo apt install mysql-server -y

Start it when the installation is complete:

sudo systemctl start mysql

To ensure full compatibility with the original MySQL product, MariaDB responds to the MySQL Command.

After installing MariaDB must have a script (named mysql_secure_installation) to back up the database:

sudo mysql_secure_installation

When prompted for the current root password, press Enter as you are configuring it for the first time. Then enter a new password for the root user and reply y for the removal of anonymous users. If you do not plan to access the database from outside the server, answer y to the next question, otherwise type n, Enter y or press Enter for all the following questions.

Try to connect by doing the following:

sudo mysql -u root -p

When prompted, enter the root password you just set.

You will see the mysql prompt:

MySQL prompt

This means that MariaDB works properly and is properly secured. type in exit to leave the console.

Step 3: Install PHP

You are now installing PHP 7.0, the version that is available by default on Debian 9.

To install PHP 7.0, do the following:

sudo apt install php-fpm php-mysql

Then install additional PHP extensions that you will most likely need:

sudo apt install php-mysql php-mbstring php-dev php-gd php-pear php-zip php-xml php-curl -y

Run the following command to set the currently installed PHP version as the system-wide default version:

sudo update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php7.0

Now check the version of the available PHP:

sudo php --version

You will see that version 7.0 is as it should be.


Output of the PHP version

Step 4: Configure Nginx to Deploy PHP Content

PHP is installed and working properly, but now we need to configure Nginx for use, as it does not happen automatically (unlike Apache).

As mentioned in step 1, Nginx stores its configuration files below / etc / nginx, The currently enabled configuration (used by Nginx) is stored in a folder named Sites enabled, Similarly, websites that are available but not activated (and therefore can not be accessed over the Internet) are stored in a folder named Websites available, We are editing the configuration of the default enabled site.

Delete the default configuration file because we do not need it:

rm / etc / nginx / sites-enabled / default

For a copy of the default site configuration, see / etc / nginx / sites-available / default,

Create a new configuration file for editing:

nano / etc / nginx / sites-enabled / default

Add the following lines:

Server {
list 80 default_server;
listen [::]: 80 default_server;

root / var / www / html;

index index.php index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

Server name _;

Location / {
try_files $ uri $ uri / = 404;
}

Place ~  .php $ {
include snippets / fastcgi-php.conf;
fastcgi_pass unix: /run/php/php7.3-fpm.sock;
}

location ~ /.ht {
deny everything;
}
}

Save and close the file.

The first part of the above configuration indicates that Nginx should listen to HTTP port 80 for requests. It then sets the root folder for the deployment of files / var / www / html (This is where your website files are stored) and Nginx is advised to first try to deploy PHP files (instead of HTML).

The rest of the displayed configuration tells Nginx how to invoke PHP and deny access to it when prompted .Access and similar files coming from the Apache web server. They are not used by Nginx and should not be sent to users as they may contain sensitive information.

Restart Nginx for the changes to take effect:

sudo systemctl start nginx new

Try to reload your site (or IP address) in your browser. You should see the same Nginx default welcome page as before.

To test if PHP rendering works, create a PHP file in / var / www / html:

sudo nano /var/www/html/index.php

Enter the following:


Save and close the file.

The phpinfo () Function gives very detailed information about the PHP installation.

Reload the site in your browser. If everything is fine this time, a page similar to the following will be displayed:

phpinfo () output

If you see a 502 Bad Gateway error, check the fastcgi_pass Line in the above configuration (the PHP version may be different, although unlikely).

Make sure you remove the file immediately afterwards because it contains a lot of confidential information:

rm / var / www / html / index.php

Step 5: Secure your domain with Let's Encrypt

If you have a domain nameIf you are fully registered and referenced to your server, you can secure it with free Let's Encrypt TLS certificates. This has the advantage of having HTTPS access and a padlock next to your domain name in all browsers.

Let's encrypt certificates with Certbot, a free program created, generated and configured for this purpose. Let's encrypt certificates after 90 days and Certbot automatically renews them when it's time (every 60 days by default) so you do not have to worry about them at all.

To install Certbot, you must first enable the Debian Backports repository by doing the following:

secho "deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian stretch-backports main" |
sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/backports.list

Update your package manager cache:

sudo apt update

Then install Certbot:

sudo apt install certbot python-certbot-nginx -t stretch-backports -y

Then run Certbot:

sudo certbot --nginx - rsa-key-size 4096

Enter an email address you wish to review and agree to the Terms of Use by entering ON, Press Y. If you want to subscribe to the EFF newsletter, enter your domain name. Certbot then asks if you want to redirect all traffic to HTTPS. Enter this 2,

You will receive a congratulatory message. This means that your domain is now backed up with free HTTPS certificates from Let's Encrypt. Update your domain again in your browser. A padlock appears to the left of your site address, which means the connection is encrypted. If you wish, you can run your site through the SSL server test and find that you are getting an A or better.

What you can do next

You have now installed and configured a LEMP stack on your Debian 9 server. You can now host your PHP website (s) and have access to the MariaDB database. For example, you can install WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, Moodle, or any other PHP application that may need to access the database, and it will work with sufficient additional configuration.

Dusko Savic is a technical writer and programmer.

duskosavic.com