What makes the bitcoin network decentralized? is it the nodes or the miners or both?

It depends on what you mean by decentralization. There is a technical meaning, and an intuitive one.

I’ll talk about the first one first. A decentralized system is one which by design functions and remains secure without the presence of a trusted central party (or parties). I can’t tell you what part of Bitcoin makes it have this property – it just happens to be the case that it does, at least under certain assumptions. Both miners and nodes matter. We need miners to avoid a central transaction approves with censorship rights. You avoid the need to trust that miners produce honest blocks by validating their chain yourself (= running a node).

Often the word “decentralization” is used in a much more practical sense, where far more aspects of the design and real-world implementation are included. It’s hard to say what this includes, as there isn’t a good definition. Does the entire ecosystem just go along with what a single, perhaps small, developer team proposes? That’s arguably a form of centralization in practice, but it’s one at a social/human layer, not one that is a technical design property of the system. Similarly, does all trading trading go through one or a few exchanges? That too can be considered a central party if its relevance to the ecosystem becomes too great. The same is true for wallet software for example – if everyone is using the same wallet software that auto-update, then perhaps the person with the keys to push such updates is a centrally trusted party.

I personally dislike this use of the term decentralization as it is far too vague, and unbounded. Are Intel and AMD and ARM central parties, because everyone uses chips produced/designed by them? For this reason I’d reserve the use of the term decentralization for the technical design, and use something like “trust minimization” for all the rest.

web applications – How will services be decentralized (P2P Networks)?

web applications – How will services be decentralized (P2P Networks)? – Software Engineering Stack Exchange

Why not use global optimization algorithms like PSO to solve decentralized control problems?

I do not see many works that use global optimization algorithms to solve decentralized control problems. Here the decentralized control problem means some entries of the feedback matrix are constrained to be zero (in the closed-loop state-space model).

Could anyone give me a reason?

a). It is difficult to apply global optimization algorithms to solve decentralized control problems.

b). It just lacks significance to do such research.

c). There are some successful applications, but you don’t find them.

cryptography – Decentralized Mobile Wallets (esp. Metamask): Security of Private Keys

I’m interested in the Metamask App (Android) and I’m wondering how exactly the sending of funds works: Since the 12 words (and the corresponding private key) are generated on my mobile device (correct?), what happens when I send funds to another address?

Is my private key sent (but hopefully not stored) to some server that handles the transaction? My understanding is, that my phone cannot do transactions on its own, since it doesn’t have the whole ~300 GiB blockchain accessible?

This question is specific to Metamask and the Ethereum blockchain, but I guess the same question could be asked for Bitcoin (and some mobile wallet) or another blockchain.

Thank you for your help!

lightning network – Would restricting channels to a maximum make LN more decentralized?

Currently LN seems a bit centralized – few central, well funded nodes seem to route transactions and make profits. I was wondering if limiting the number of channels a node can open to a certain max number, would make the LN more decentralized, in a sense that big central nodes won’t be able to have hundreds of channels and the routing action will spread more evenly to the network. Does this make sense?

How could a decentralized network limit the amount of nodes to one per user

Proof of Elapsed Time seems like a great idea to me, but in fully decentralized and public networks (like one similar to bitcoin) this would bring problems with it as one could just put up as many nodes as they like to heavily increase their chance of mining a block.

Is there any way to limit the amount of nodes a ‘user’ could run to 1?
Are there any solutions to this problem?

But the first problem would probably be defining what one ‘user’ is

decentralization – How exactly does bitcoin code change happen in a decentralized system

I have long been under the assumption that bitcoin was just a “protocol” or a “contract“. Different nodes run their own implementation, on different hardwares. Some are efficient, some not, and they have to agree to the bitcoin protocol to function in this ecosystem.

But I found out there is actually a centralized bitcoin code base that’s frequently updated! How do they even ensure that every nodes update to the newest code? And how do they ensure that the code compiles for every single hardware?


  1. What is SoupSwap?

SoupSwap is a multi-ecosystem decentralized finance platform built on Binance Smart Chain that operates on a decentralized network, eliminating intermediate restrictions and supporting thousands of decentralized applications (Dapp). SoupSwap provides maximum security and performance to optimally save time and costs; the decentralized application chain maximizes profitability and handles multiple transactions thereby raising the position of the decentralized financial platform to new heights.

  1. Our Solutions

SoupSwap was developed with the aim of improving the scalability of decentralized applications together with maximizing performance, minimizing fees and providing liquidity for the community. By pursuing this mission, SoupSwap has encouraged the team to build the most diverse and powerful ecosystem to meet the needs of millions of global users and investors.

  1. Platform SoupSwap
  • SoupSwap is a feature-rich, decentralized cryptocurrency swap platform allowing global customers to participate in real-time peer-to-peer cryptocurrency exchanges.
  • SoupSwap removes any forms hindering liquidity pooling from issuing new assets: asset ratios, liquidity depth, fee rates, and other parameters can all be freely customized and configured according to in real-time.
  • The high capital efficiency support supplies of small tokens, reduces abnormal losses, and minimizes investors’ falling prices. The advantage of the fastest processing speed (2000 TPS), security, low fees, and a user-friendly interface, protects the Soup Swap platform against crypto price manipulation on Defi market.
  • Additionally, Soup Swap integrates many features on the Defi platform to help users find and secure more assets.
  1. Highlights Of SoupSwap
  • The SoupSwap Ecosystem was built to support the development of a decentralized platform providing many criteria: security, low cost, fast processing speed, anti-crash, support Start-Up Defi, …
  • SoupSwap recognized the need for a staking solution for multiple Token Defi handling covering the administrative functions of token issuers and holders.
  • SoupSwap optimizes asset values through staking thanks to a Multi-Bonded Proof of Stake (MBPoS) consensus mechanism.
  • Compared to other PoS consensus protocols on the market, MBPoS does not limit a Stake’s asset value and other digital assets, thus guaranteeing asset value for millions of users.
  1. Ecosystems Soup Swap

• What is Soup Swap?

  • Swap-based SoupSwap is built on an automated field creation protocol (AMM – Automated Market Maker) that allows users to convert coins on the SoupSwap ecosystem, using Pool-bar accounts instead of setting buy sell.
  • With fast and powerful development on a decentralized financial (Defi) platform, SoupSwap is the optimal choice for overall convenience.
  • Investors can become a Liquidity Provider (LP) for a pool on SoupSwap by sending a token of equivalent value in exchange for other tokens in the pool.

• What is Soup Liquidity?

  • In addition to the liquidity pools provided by the liquidity providers mentioned above, SoupSwap also develops the Soup Liquidity platform.
  • This feature will automatically detect liquidity shortages in liquidity groups and automatically use instant loans on loan protocols through automated and integrated algorithms.
  • This loan will be used to process liquidity promptly for liquidity groups in case of a shortage. This helps the ecosystem to be balanced and sustainable. These quick loans will be automatically distributed and delivered to project teams on time.

• What is Soup Staking?

  • Soup Staking is a Staking service platform that allows crypto investors to Stake their identifiable PoS digital assets through a third-party service receiving the technical plan.
  • We provide the platform to place fixed resources in the blockchain. For the set-up of them, SoupSwap depends on transaction values.
  • Staking is conducted with validation jobs that lock your coins to be randomly selected in the protocol at a specific time to generate a block. Normally, participants with large sums of money have a high chance of being selected as validators for the next block.

• What is Soup Pool?

  • A key element of the SoupSwap ecosystem is the Soup Pool. The Soup Pool provides new tokens with the potential for promotion and gets closer to the Soup community.

  • The Soup Pool allows projects developed on Binance Smart Chain to apply bootstraps by distributing a portion of their tokens to SPW token holders.

  • Soup Pool is divided into two parts: Core and Community.
    Core: the SoupSwap team will initially select a project.
    Community: Projects that pass the community’s vote on the governance portal.
    Note: Any project can distribute tokens through the Soup Pool, but only projects that win votes will be listed on the SoupSwap swap platform.
    • What is Soup NFT?

  • Besides the official token of the ecosystem, SPW, the SoupSwap project will also research and develop the NFT.

  • NFT means “Non-fungible token”. It is a unique cryptocurrency that another NFT cannot replace. NFTs usually represent a digital asset or an asset tokenized from the real world.

  • When you hold NFTs and coins, you first own two types of assets on the chain: the NFT and the coin which share the same properties of blockchain: decentralization and anonymity. Additionally, you can store NFT on a blockchain wallet, and retrieve and sell similar coins. However, with the degree of toxicity and being “irreplaceable”, an NFT is expected to increase in price. Over time, it will accumulate value with the expectation that the next transaction will be priced higher than the previous one.

• What is Soup Lottery?

The lottery is a special program in the SoupSwap ecosystem. Like the traditional lottery, users will spend tokens buying lottery tickets and receiving valuable rewards when their lottery tickets coincide with the SoupSwap lottery results.
General information:

  • Lottery ticket price:
  • Limit the number of lottery tickets when buying:
  • When buying a lottery ticket, the buyer will be given a random 4-digit combination with each number between 0-9, for example, “1-9-3-2”
    Lottery Policy (winning policy): the Project owner decides
  • When all 4 numbers match the results of the SoupSwap rotation

• What is SoupSwap (SPW) Token?

  • SPW token is a native token of SoupSwap protocol to incentivize them to stay with the SoupSwap. Holding the SPW token means holding a share in the governance of the protocol. All SPW token holders can decide the subsequent chains to implement SoupSwap on, how much SPW to distribute to LPs in the new chain, which new token projects SoupSwap should support.

Tokens as the Soul of Projects: Value and Growth

  • A crypto project without a sound and sustainable tokenomics is, in our opinion, “soulless”, because tokens serve two crucial primary functions: value encapsulation and growth incentivization. The SoupSwap team has been designing and will always design future token economy models with these keywords top of mind.

  • We will be running highly cost-effective incentive programs and initiatives to help facilitate and ensure the continuous growth of the SoupSwap platform and SoupSwap community. In the meantime, the SPW token will be the ideal vehicle for capturing and representing the value of SoupSwap’s economy and ecosystem, and the collective value of the platform will be shared equitably and generously with our loyal supporters.

Contract Address: 0x604d105f2f1f68641a000f03b5dc557bfffdb8fe
Token Name: SoupSwap
Symbol: SPW
Decimals: 18
Network: Binance Smart Chain
Platform: BEP-20
Max Supply: 98.000.000 SPW

• Where to store SPW Token?

  • SPW token is a Bep-20 token, therefore you can store SPW in a Smart Chain address (Metamask, TrustWallet, Wallet Connect, Binance Chain, Coinbase Wallet, and others).
  • Make sure you own a private key/seeding phrase and can access the Smart Chain address. On the TrustWallet app, import your address you received SPW > switch the network to Smart Chain > you will see your SPW balance.

• What is the SPW distribution plan?

TEAM: 5%

decentralization – Is it possible to have a decentralized exchange like Bisq, but for government security contracts?

The idea here is to have a market place for competing governments.
Since each government gets its power from having a monopoly on violence, what if we had a free market of security agencies that can offer a replacement for government security? This will essentially put the power of the government back into the hands of the people.

The idea is similar to how Bisq works:
Both the users and the security companies deposit money and enter a voluntary contract to reach a certain goal of lowering crime rate. The deposited money makes sure both sides are incentivized to reach the goal in the contract. Everything is done using Bitcoin and Tor, so all participants keep their privacy.

Here is how the idea works in 3 steps:

  1. The security company who wants to do the police work opens the app and marks an area on the map that currently has 10% crime rate. and they’re willing to stake money (a deposit) to lower the crime rate, let’s say they deposit $10K. The security company claims that they will lower the crime rate from 10% to 5% within 6 months in the marked area, and they’re asking for $5K in return if they succeed in doing so.

  2. The people who live in the marked zone see the security contract offer on the app, and put up a collective deposit of $5K and accept the contract.

If the security company fails to reach the 5% goal, then they lose the $10K deposit to the users. But if the security company succeeds to reach the 5% goal, then they get their 10K deposit back + the 5K from the users.

  1. The app operator (completely anonymous person) is an arbitrator for the money staked from both sides, and he handles the payment in case of a dispute, or simply pays the winning side if the contract is completed as planned. He obviously gets a fee from the deposit for providing this arbitration service. The arbitrator won’t steal the money because he’ll lose his reputation and lose future business to his competing “alternative police app” operators.

What are possible pitfalls in this model?

CryptoSwap Finance is a decentralized exchange that runs on the Binance smart chain.

I think this is a great platform for making money and tokens. CryptoSwap Finance is a decentralized exchange running on the Binance Smart Chain, with many other features that allow you to earn and earn tokens.

CryptoSwap Finance makes it easy to exchange BEP-20 tokens. This platform is fast, cheap and anyone can use it.

Buying guide

  • Register new account and login.
  • Choose how many tokens you want to buy.
  • Pay with crypto for your CSF tokens (available methods BNB/BTC/ETH/USDT)
  • Add Binance Chain wallet (BSC) to your account – we will send CSF tokens to this wallet after ICO sale finish.

CryptoSwap Finance products

Crypto Trade/Exchange

The exchange platform is an automated market maker (AMM) that enables two tokens to be exchanged on the Binance Smart Chain. Tokens are exchanged immediately, cheap and secure.

Crypto Farming

Farming platform let you deposit and lock LP tokens to earn reward in CSF tokens. This is simple way to earn even 20x reward with their main CSF/BNB pool.

Crypto Staking

Staking platform allows Binance Smart Chain projects to bootstrap adoption though distributing some of their tokens to CSF holders. You can stake your CSF tokens to earn reward in other tokens.

Crypto Lottery

Buy lottery tickets with your CSF tokens and win huge crypto jackpot when your numbers match with winning ticket.

Initial Farm Offerings

Use your CSF-BNB LP tokens to buy new tokens offered for sale by other start-up projects. After sale finish – project get BNB tokens, you get project tokens and CSF is burned.

Bonus Tokens:

– Buy more than 300 CSF – get 5% bonus tokens

– Buy more than 500 CSF – get 10% bonus tokens

– Buy more than 900 CSF – get 20% bonus tokens

Token name: CryptoSwap Finance Token (CSF)

Duration: 29.03-15.05 or all tokens sold.

Tokens available for public sale: 210 000 CSF

Token price: 3$

Available payment methods: BNB, BTC, ETH, USDT

Min/Max buy: 15 CSF / 20 000 CSF

Sale page: http://www.cryptoswap.finance/sale

This is a great place to start your investment, so hurry up for more information you can visit at


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