I was going through the text Computer Networking- A Top-Down Approach by Kurose and Ross, there I found subtleties with the TCP congestion control FSM which is shown below:
Mainly I am having difficulty in understanding the action transmit new segment(s), as allowed and transition to the Fast Recovery state.
I have read the equivalent portions from the textbook Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan but there though the explanation is easy but there is no FSM or a programmatic approach.
Now let us consider the slow start phase as shown in the Kurose & Ross text:
The time diagram which they explain about the $cwnd$ doubling after each transmission round is easy and is just like what the Forouzan text says. But I find it difficult to understand the implementation based on the arc labeled with :
in the slow start phase.
- Suppose the sender starts with $cwnd = 1$ $MSS$ then sends this (1st) segment to the network layer and awaits the acknowledgment.
- The sender gets “new ACK” for the previous packet and increases $cwnd$ to $2$ $MSS$. Then in accordance to “transmit new segment(s), as allowed”, the sender sends $2$ segments (2nd and 3rd) to the network layer and awaits the acknowledgments.
- Now the sender receives “new ACK” corresponding to 2nd segment and increases $cwnd$ to $3$ $MSS$. Then in accordance to “transmit new segment(s), as allowed”, the sender sends $3$ segments to the network layer and awaits the acknowledgments.
- Now the sender receives “new ACK” corresponding to 3rd segment and increases $cwnd$ to $4$ $MSS$. Then in accordance to “transmit new segment(s), as allowed”, the sender sends $4$ segments to the network layer and awaits the acknowledgments.
From points 3 and 4, I find that the situation does not match with the slow start phase as shown in Fig 3.51. (i.e. the no. of segments sent are 1,2, 3,4 instead of 1,2,4)
I cannot understand the Fast recovery state’s action. Specifically the Forouzan text says :
Most TCP implementations have two reactions:
If a time-out occurs, there is a stronger possibility of congestion; a segment has probably been dropped in the network, and there is no news about the sent segments. In this case TCP reacts strongly:
a. It sets the value of the threshold to one-half of the current window size.
b. It sets cwnd to the size of one segment.
c. It starts the slow-start phase again.
If three ACKs are received, there is a weaker possibility of congestion; a segment may have been dropped, but some segments after that may have arrived safely since three ACKs are received. This is called fast transmission and fast recovery. In this case, TCP has a weaker reaction:
a. It sets the value of the threshold to one-half of the current window size.
b. It sets cwnd to the value of the threshold (some implementations add three segment sizes to the threshold).
c. It starts the congestion avoidance phase.
In the Forouzan text, there is no such transition to the Fast Recovery state. But here in Kurose there is such a state and there is an arc labeled :
whose working I do not quite understand in detail.
What extra work is the version in Kurose doing as compared to the one given in the Forouzan text? Can anyone explain me the subtleties with a comprehensive example covering all the cases of the FSM, so that I can understand the thing better.
I have an image field (multiple).
In the node form, the ImageWiget has a
process method that adds previews and form fields for images that have already been uploaded.
The description for the title tag is hard-coded on line 278:
'#description' => t('The title is used as a tool tip when the user hovers the mouse over the image.'). We are actually showing the title as a caption and not a tooltip.
How can I override the description?
a specific you tube video keeps showing old title and description after clicking Save button although it shows the correct data in the editing mode…All other videos are updated successfully….what shall i do?
$ exiftool test.jpeg | grep 'This is' Image Description : This is the 'ImageDescription'. User Comment : This is the 'UserComment'. Description : This is the 'Description'. $ exif test.jpeg | grep 'This is' Image Description |This is the 'ImageDescription'. User Comment |This is the 'UserComment'. $ exiv2 test.jpeg | grep 'This is' Exif comment : This is the 'UserComment'.
Three different commands show three different subsets of these tags.
Just to add more confusion, when the image is uploaded to Google Photos only the “Description” is shown.
What is the intended purpose of these (and perhaps other) similar descriptions, and in practice how do people typically use them?
Note that I’m not asking about the technical details of differences in how they are stored as meta data; that’s easy to look up.
I want to know why one would decide to use one rather than the others, or to be safe should one always fill in all of them with the same information?
I need to add ‘class’ and ‘data-type’ attributes to meta tag containing description attribute. I was able to locate the core Metatag module, however I’m unable to find any documentation on how to customize output without altering the core.
1000+ Words Article Writing With SEO Friendly Effective Description
Informative Writing For Any Topic On Article ,Content,Blog Posts.
Hello, Thanks for have you.
I write article SEO friendly topic based not keyword based .You will able to increase your creative professional carrier on content in SEO marketplace.I will give informative ,best format writing for your websites.
Why hire me?
1. Rich article for your websites
2. Informative writing
3. Topic based writing
4. Effective description
5. Increase readability
6. Unlimited revision
7. Competitive writing
8.Niche relevent writing
9. unique and
10. No plagarisim
I try to add product Short Description in the Related Products section in Magento 2.4 version.
I overwrite this file:/app/design/frontend/Theme/MyTheme/Magento_Catalog/templates/product/list/items.phtml in my custom theme and I add the following code:
<?=/* @noEscape */ $_helper->productAttribute($item, $item->getShortDescription(), 'short_description')?>
The code work only for Simple Products if there in the related products are some configurable products the code is not return anything.
Is there any way to have the short description for both types of products?
for a project I have a large dataset with a multitude of variables from different questionnaires.
Not all variables are required for all analyses.
So I created a preprocessing script, in which subsets of variables (with and without abbreviations)
are created. However it gets confusing pretty fast.
For convinence I decided to create a
index_list which holds all data.frames as well as a data.frame called
index_df which holds the name of the respective data.frame as well as a brief description of each subversion of the dataset.
######################## Preparation / Loading ##################### # Clean Out Global Environment rm(list=ls()) # Detach all unnecessary pacakges pacman::p_unload() # Load Required Libraries pacman::p_load(dplyr, tidyr, gridExtra, conflicted) # Load Data #source("00_Preprocess.R") #create simulation data instead sub_data <- data.frame(x=c(2,3,5,1,6),y=c(20,30,10,302,5)) uv_newScale <- data.frame(item1=c(2,3,5,1,6),item2=c(3,5,1,3,2)) # Resolving conflicted Namepsaces conflict_prefer("filter", "dplyr") # Creating an Index index_list <- list("sub_data"=sub_data, "uv_newScale"=uv_newScale ) index_df <- data.frame("Data.Frame"=c("sub_data", "uv_newScale"), "Description"=c("Contains all sumscales + sociodemographics, names abbreviated", "Only sum scores for the UV Scale"))
I am wondering if there is a more efficient way to do so. Like saving the data.frames together with the description in one container?
I need your help to add hyperlink and change the color of the description when you create a new a column. Please see the attachment. for instance in here I want to add http://google.com as hyperlink so users can click on it. Also I need to change the text color to red.