computer networks – Tearing down the FSM description of congestion control

I was going through the text Computer Networking- A Top-Down Approach by Kurose and Ross, there I found subtleties with the TCP congestion control FSM which is shown below:

TCP Congestion Control FSM

Mainly I am having difficulty in understanding the action transmit new segment(s), as allowed and transition to the Fast Recovery state.

I have read the equivalent portions from the textbook Data Communications and Networking by Forouzan but there though the explanation is easy but there is no FSM or a programmatic approach.

Now let us consider the slow start phase as shown in the Kurose & Ross text:

TCP Slow start phase

The time diagram which they explain about the $cwnd$ doubling after each transmission round is easy and is just like what the Forouzan text says. But I find it difficult to understand the implementation based on the arc labeled with :
Arc

in the slow start phase.

  1. Suppose the sender starts with $cwnd = 1$ $MSS$ then sends this (1st) segment to the network layer and awaits the acknowledgment.
  2. The sender gets “new ACK” for the previous packet and increases $cwnd$ to $2$ $MSS$. Then in accordance to “transmit new segment(s), as allowed”, the sender sends $2$ segments (2nd and 3rd) to the network layer and awaits the acknowledgments.
  3. Now the sender receives “new ACK” corresponding to 2nd segment and increases $cwnd$ to $3$ $MSS$. Then in accordance to “transmit new segment(s), as allowed”, the sender sends $3$ segments to the network layer and awaits the acknowledgments.
  4. Now the sender receives “new ACK” corresponding to 3rd segment and increases $cwnd$ to $4$ $MSS$. Then in accordance to “transmit new segment(s), as allowed”, the sender sends $4$ segments to the network layer and awaits the acknowledgments.

From points 3 and 4, I find that the situation does not match with the slow start phase as shown in Fig 3.51. (i.e. the no. of segments sent are 1,2, 3,4 instead of 1,2,4)


I cannot understand the Fast recovery state’s action. Specifically the Forouzan text says :

Most TCP implementations have two reactions:

  1. If a time-out occurs, there is a stronger possibility of congestion; a segment has probably been dropped in the network, and there is no news about the sent segments. In this case TCP reacts strongly:
    a. It sets the value of the threshold to one-half of the current window size.
    b. It sets cwnd to the size of one segment.
    c. It starts the slow-start phase again.

  2. If three ACKs are received, there is a weaker possibility of congestion; a segment may have been dropped, but some segments after that may have arrived safely since three ACKs are received. This is called fast transmission and fast recovery. In this case, TCP has a weaker reaction:
    a. It sets the value of the threshold to one-half of the current window size.
    b. It sets cwnd to the value of the threshold (some implementations add three segment sizes to the threshold).
    c. It starts the congestion avoidance phase.

In the Forouzan text, there is no such transition to the Fast Recovery state. But here in Kurose there is such a state and there is an arc labeled :

label

whose working I do not quite understand in detail.

What extra work is the version in Kurose doing as compared to the one given in the Forouzan text? Can anyone explain me the subtleties with a comprehensive example covering all the cases of the FSM, so that I can understand the thing better.

8 – Overwrite field description in an image widget

I have an image field (multiple).

In the node form, the ImageWiget has a process method that adds previews and form fields for images that have already been uploaded.

The description for the title tag is hard-coded on line 278: '#description' => t('The title is used as a tool tip when the user hovers the mouse over the image.'). We are actually showing the title as a caption and not a tooltip.

How can I override the description?

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magento2 – Add description to Related Products

I try to add product Short Description in the Related Products section in Magento 2.4 version.

I overwrite this file:/app/design/frontend/Theme/MyTheme/Magento_Catalog/templates/product/list/items.phtml in my custom theme and I add the following code:

<?=/* @noEscape */ $_helper->productAttribute($item, $item->getShortDescription(), 'short_description')?>

The code work only for Simple Products if there in the related products are some configurable products the code is not return anything.

Is there any way to have the short description for both types of products?

Thank you

collections – R Container for Multiple data.frame with a Brief Description of the Content of the data.frame

for a project I have a large dataset with a multitude of variables from different questionnaires.
Not all variables are required for all analyses.
So I created a preprocessing script, in which subsets of variables (with and without abbreviations)
are created. However it gets confusing pretty fast.
For convinence I decided to create a index_list which holds all data.frames as well as a data.frame called index_df which holds the name of the respective data.frame as well as a brief description of each subversion of the dataset.

######################## Preparation / Loading #####################
# Clean Out Global Environment
rm(list=ls())

# Detach all unnecessary pacakges
pacman::p_unload()

# Load Required Libraries
pacman::p_load(dplyr, tidyr, gridExtra, conflicted)

# Load Data
#source("00_Preprocess.R")
#create simulation data instead
sub_data <- data.frame(x=c(2,3,5,1,6),y=c(20,30,10,302,5))
uv_newScale <- data.frame(item1=c(2,3,5,1,6),item2=c(3,5,1,3,2))

# Resolving conflicted Namepsaces
conflict_prefer("filter", "dplyr")

# Creating an Index 
index_list <- list("sub_data"=sub_data,
                   "uv_newScale"=uv_newScale
                   )

index_df <- data.frame("Data.Frame"=c("sub_data",
                                        "uv_newScale"),
                       "Description"=c("Contains all sumscales + sociodemographics, names abbreviated",
                                       "Only sum scores for the UV Scale"))

I am wondering if there is a more efficient way to do so. Like saving the data.frames together with the description in one container?