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hard drive – where is the disk capacity stored?

In short, if I do dd disk-to-disk (e.g. /dev/sda to /dev/sdb), is the capacity of the whole disk also copied?

For example, if sda is actually 1TB and sdb 2TB, after the dd, which would a Linux system regard sdb as, 1TB or 2TB?

I assume that the disk capacity is recorded in a separate ROM or small non-volatile storage, not in any sector of the disk. Or, maybe a couple of sectors of a physical disk might be always reserved.

I’d like to migrate systems on an old 1TB hard disk to a new 2TB one with minimal pain. The old disk won’t be used. I thought dd might do. The only part that I wasn’t sure is if I do dd & the size of the disk capacity is ever copied just like the partition table, the new 2TB disk would become 1TB. I wanted to make sure before actually doing dd.

My Google search was not fruitful, so finally I decided to post a question here.

If all the systems were Linux, I’d consider rsync partition-to-partition & grub-install. However, unfortunately, I have one Windows and do not have a Windows installation usb. I am not sure how to re-install and/or reconfigure Windows boot loader after rsync.

disk utility – Can’t reclaim empty space on main macOS partition [macOS Mojave]

A while ago I made a linux partition on my MBP (2017), but it didn’t work so well so I needed to delete the partition. After a lot of trouble trying to delete it, I found this answer; I used the second part to free the space on the old linux partition, and then I resized it to 0. Only, it didn’t actually resize. The partition is still there (though it is no longer showing up in Disk Utility):

$ diskutil list
/dev/disk0 (internal):
   #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
   0:      GUID_partition_scheme                         500.3 GB   disk0
   1:                        EFI EFI                     314.6 MB   disk0s1
   2:                 Apple_APFS Container disk1         276.5 GB   disk0s2
   3:                        EFI NO NAME                 629.1 MB   disk0s3

/dev/disk1 (synthesized):
   #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
   0:      APFS Container Scheme -                      +276.5 GB   disk1
                                 Physical Store disk0s2
   1:                APFS Volume Macintosh HD            246.9 GB   disk1s1
   2:                APFS Volume Preboot                 45.9 MB    disk1s2
   3:                APFS Volume Recovery                510.8 MB   disk1s3
   4:                APFS Volume VM                      1.1 GB     disk1s4

I think it is this line that is the culprit, though I am not sure:

   2:                 Apple_APFS Container disk1         276.5 GB   disk0s2

As I say, I have run

diskutil apfs resizeContainer disk0s2 0

As per the linked answer, but nothing changed. Even in recovery mode, Disk Utility will only show the ~277 GB I have available on the main partition.

How can I reclaim this space, which is no longer actually showing up?


P.S., this is what I had before I ran those commands:

$ diskutil list
/dev/disk0 (internal):
   #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
   0:      GUID_partition_scheme                         500.3 GB   disk0
   1:                        EFI EFI                     314.6 MB   disk0s1
   2:                 Apple_APFS Container disk1         276.5 GB   disk0s2
   3:                        EFI NO NAME                 629.1 MB   disk0s3
   4:                  Apple_HFS Untitled                222.7 GB   disk0s4
   5:                 Apple_Boot Boot OS X               134.2 MB   disk0s5

/dev/disk1 (synthesized):
   #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
   0:      APFS Container Scheme -                      +276.5 GB   disk1
                                 Physical Store disk0s2
   1:                APFS Volume Macintosh HD            249.7 GB   disk1s1
   2:                APFS Volume Preboot                 45.9 MB    disk1s2
   3:                APFS Volume Recovery                510.8 MB   disk1s3
   4:                APFS Volume VM                      6.4 GB     disk1s4

/dev/disk3 (disk image):
   #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
   0:                            NO NAME                +10.7 GB    disk3

NO NAME was just a USB drive, by the way.

20.04 – Erase or reset a NTFS corrupt disk when not mounted

I’m new to the community, but I’ve already found so much to learn in the past days in this community. You guys rock!

I’ve been having a problem with one of my hard drives recently, a Toshiba 2TB USB 3.0 external hdd, bought in May last year. Suddenly it was not working anymore on Windows 10.
With Ubuntu I was able to use testdisk to salvage the important files I needed.
I’m not an expert, and form what I’ve been able to understand, my hdd has a problem with NTFS filesystem, but I can’t understand if the problem is a software one or a hardware one.
By using smartctl I was able to obtain “ATA Error Count: 7354“; and by running sudo ntfsfix /dev/sdb I obtained:

Failed to determine whether /dev/sdb is mounted: No such file or directory
Mounting volume... Failed to access '/dev/sdb': No such file or directory
Error opening '/dev/sdb': No such file or directory
FAILED
Attempting to correct errors... Failed to access '/dev/sdb': No such file or directory
Error opening '/dev/sdb': No such file or directory
FAILED
Failed to startup volume: No such file or directory
Failed to access '/dev/sdb': No such file or directory
Error opening '/dev/sdb': No such file or directory
Volume is corrupt. You should run chkdsk.

Now my question is: what is ATA error count 7353? Is it a hardware or software problem? And, most importantly, can this drive be repaired? Running a chkdsk on Windows doesn’t lead to anything: the PC just freezes.
My question is, if it is only a software problem (and I think it is, because whit testdisk I was able to copy all the important files I needed), how could I erase or reset the disk to factory state if I can’t even mount it? Is there a way to force the mount?

I’m using Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS 64 bit.

Thanks in advance for your support.

mariadb – Log to disk all queries that waited for a lock over a period of time

I manage a mariadb 10.4.17 server, and I’m having the issues with a table, it seems randomly I will get lots of queries “waiting for metadata lock” causing my entire database to be useless.

I usually have to restart my server to get the database running again.

I’m looking for methods that can consistently log to disk all the queries who can use problems, without affecting performance too much.

I like something like this

watch -n 0.5 ‘mysqladmin -u root -ppassword “processlist”‘ > log.txt

But I don’t know how to order by state. Anyway I’m open to any ideas. Looking for something I can look at to see what happened in the past because when the issue happens I just want to restart the db to get back online asap and don’t have time to dig the root of the issue

file encryption – I lost 1GB of storage in C drive after deleting a veracrypt volume. How can i recover this lost disk space?

So I created a veracrypt file hosted volume/container and had a hidden volume inside to try it out(totalling 1GB). After a day or two, I permanently deleted the container file (after dismounting it) but i lost the equivalent amount of space from C drive. Is there way to recover this and how to prevent this in a future use of veracrypt volumes?

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performance – Multiple disks vs single disk on virtualized environment

We’re planning to install a SQL Server on this physical architecture:

  • A hyper-v cluster based on windows server 2019
  • A cluster shared volume where all VMs live
  • A full-flash SAN that contains the CSV

I’ve always read that is a common best practice to have multiple disks for data files, log files, temp db files ect…

But that best practice is referred to a bare-bone installation.

So, what I’m asking is: what are the actual benefits of doing so on the above described architecture (if any)?

Is disk encryption (e. g. LUKS) reversed when having an encrypted disk image inside an encrypted partition with the same encryption password?

Let’s assume one has created an encrypted partition, e. g. with the LUKS standard. Then one creates a (virtual) disk image, e. g. for use by a virtual machine, containing an encrypted partition created by the same method and using the same encryption password. The disk image is stored inside the outer encrypted partition. I assume that a symmetric encryption is used.

Is it possible that the parts of the real disk which are occupied by the encrypted partion of the inside disk image are visible in plain text (or something close to that) as if no encryption was used (due to applying the same symmetric encryption method twice)?
If yes, in which particular configuration?