Partition Error – Internet Restore download canceled

I tried to restore the system and forgot to copy the data folder. That's why I shut down the computer in the middle of internet recovery.

There I damaged the table or MacO partition because it was corrupt or something. It has some data like FFFF-FFFFF-FFF. And it only started with Internet Recovery.

Then I did something like this (with disk1), but when I did "gpt add -i 2 …" I noticed that I had forgotten to output "gpt -r show / dev / disk1" too see. Oh, and I did it without the "-b 409640 -s 194016208 -t hfs / dev / disk0" anyway, I think.

So first I would have to fix the partition table or add the partition I removed again. Then I would have to fix the original problem of type or damage, right?

I add some information about TestDisk analysis and others:

Backup:

#1586201402 Disk /dev/sda - 500 GB / 465 GiB - CHS 60821 255 63
2 : start=       34, size=        6, Id=00, P
1 : start=       40, size=   409600, Id=00, P

Error:

TestDisk 7.0, Data Recovery Utility, April 2015
Christophe GRENIER 
http://www.cgsecurity.org

Disk /dev/sda - 500 GB / 465 GiB - CHS 60821 255 63

The harddisk (500 GB / 465 GiB) seems too small! (< 232 TB / 211 TiB)
Check the harddisk size: HD jumpers settings, BIOS detection...

The following partition can't be recovered:
     Partition               Start        End    Size in sectors
>  MS Data                156346757 454172223877 454015877120 (~?~?H~I ~EM-@uDH~
MLPL~I 1 )


( Continue )
btrfs blocksize=4294960503 Backup superblock, 232 TB / 211 TiB

Result:

Disk /dev/sda - 500 GB / 465 GiB - CHS 60821 255 63
     Partition               Start        End    Size in sectors
>P EFI System                    40     409639     409600 (EFI)
 P Mac HFS                 10284176   10300561      16386
 P Mac HFS                 10597040   10613425      16386
 P MS Data                107908924  107911227       2304 (NO NAME)
 P MS Data                156471568  281469199  124997632
 D MS Data                283997118  301126589   17129472
 D MS Data                294410875  294413754       2880 (NO NAME)
 P Linux Swap             417780000  417780015         16
 D MS Data                571317688  601673143   30355456
 D MS Data                589088358  619443813   30355456
 P MS Data                709222272  834219903  124997632
 P MS Data                957573120  976842751   19269632

Structure: Ok.  Use Up/Down Arrow keys to select partition.
Use Left/Right Arrow keys to CHANGE partition characteristics:
                P=Primary  D=Deleted
Keys A: add partition, L: load backup, T: change type, P: list files,
     Enter: to continue
FAT32, blocksize=512, 209 MB / 200 MiB

Log:

OS: Linux, kernel 5.3.0-28-generic (#30~18.04.1-Ubuntu SMP Fri Jan 17 06:14:09 UTC 2020) x86_64
Compiler: GCC 7.2
ext2fs lib: 1.44.1, ntfs lib: libntfs-3g, reiserfs lib: none, ewf lib: none, curses lib: ncurses 6.0
/dev/sda: LBA, HPA, LBA48, DCO support
/dev/sda: size       977105060 sectors
/dev/sda: user_max   977105060 sectors
/dev/sda: native_max 977105060 sectors
/dev/sda: dco        977105060 sectors
Warning: can't get size for Disk /dev/mapper/control - 0 B - 0 sectors, sector size=512
Hard disk list
Disk /dev/sda - 500 GB / 465 GiB - CHS 60821 255 63, sector size=512 - APPLE SSD SM0512G, S/N:S2ZCNY0H915970, FW:BXZ13A0Q
Disk /dev/sdc - 15 GB / 14 GiB - CHS 14784 64 32, sector size=512 - Kingston DataTraveler 3.0, FW:PMAP

Partition table type (auto): EFI GPT
Disk /dev/sda - 500 GB / 465 GiB - APPLE SSD SM0512G
Partition table type: EFI GPT

Analyse Disk /dev/sda - 500 GB / 465 GiB - CHS 60821 255 63
hdr_size=92
hdr_lba_self=1
hdr_lba_alt=977105059 (expected 977105059)
hdr_lba_start=34
hdr_lba_end=977105026
hdr_lba_table=2
hdr_entries=128
hdr_entsz=128
check_part_gpt failed for partition
 2 P Mac HFS                       34         39          6 (MacOS)
Current partition structure:
 1 P EFI System                    40     409639     409600 (EFI System Partition)
No HFS or HFS+ structure
 2 P Mac HFS                       34         39          6 (MacOS)
 2 P Mac HFS                       34         39          6 (MacOS)
Backup partition structure
partition_save

search_part()
Disk /dev/sda - 500 GB / 465 GiB - CHS 60821 255 63
FAT32 at 0/0/41
check_FAT: Unusual media descriptor (0xf0!=0xf8)
FAT1 : 32-3182
FAT2 : 3183-6333
start_rootdir : 6334 root cluster : 2
Data : 6334-409599
sectors : 409600
cluster_size : 1
no_of_cluster : 403266 (2 - 403267)
fat_length 3151 calculated 3151
heads/cylinder 16 (FAT) != 255 (HD)
sect/track 32 (FAT) != 63 (HD)

FAT32 at 0/0/41
     EFI System                    40     409639     409600 (EFI)
     FAT32, blocksize=512, 209 MB / 200 MiB

HFS magic value at 640/40/57
part_size 16386
     Mac HFS                 10284176   10300561      16386
     HFS blocksize=32768, 8389 KB / 8193 KiB

HFS magic value at 659/161/63
part_size 16386
     Mac HFS                 10597040   10613425      16386
     HFS blocksize=32768, 8389 KB / 8193 KiB
FAT12 at 6717/5/5
check_FAT: Unusual media descriptor (0xf8!=0xf0)
FAT1 : 1-2
FAT2 : 3-4
start_rootdir : 5
Data : 37-2300
sectors : 2304
cluster_size : 4
no_of_cluster : 566 (2 - 567)
fat_length 2 calculated 2
heads/cylinder 64 (FAT) != 255 (HD)
sect/track 32 (FAT) != 63 (HD)

FAT12 at 6717/5/5
     MS Data                107908924  107911227       2304 (NO NAME)
     FAT12, blocksize=2048, 1179 KB / 1152 KiB

recover_btrfs: part_size 454015877120
     MS Data                156346757 454172223877 454015877120 (ëÿÿHÅH
ÀuDHL$PLâE1Éj)
     btrfs blocksize=4294960503 Backup superblock, 232 TB / 211 TiB
This partition ends after the disk limits. (start=156346757, size=454015877120, end=454172223877, disk end=977105060)

recover_EXT2: s_block_group_nr=0/476, s_mnt_count=1/4294967295, s_blocks_per_group=32768, s_inodes_per_group=8192
recover_EXT2: s_blocksize=4096
recover_EXT2: s_blocks_count 15624704
recover_EXT2: part_size 124997632
     MS Data                156471568  281469199  124997632
     ext4 blocksize=4096 Large_file Sparse_SB Recover, 63 GB / 59 GiB
FAT32 at 18326/58/31
Bad root_cluster
FAT12 at 18326/58/32
FAT1 : 1-9
FAT2 : 10-18
start_rootdir : 19
Data : 33-2879
sectors : 2880
cluster_size : 1
no_of_cluster : 2847 (2 - 2848)
fat_length 9 calculated 9
FAT differs, FAT sectors=0-9/9
heads/cylinder 2 (FAT) != 255 (HD)
sect/track 18 (FAT) != 63 (HD)

FAT12 at 18326/58/32
     MS Data                294410875  294413754       2880 (NO NAME)
     FAT12, blocksize=512, 1474 KB / 1440 KiB

block_group_nr 49

recover_EXT2: "e2fsck -b 1605632 -B 4096 device" may be needed
recover_EXT2: s_block_group_nr=49/65, s_mnt_count=0/4294967295, s_blocks_per_group=32768, s_inodes_per_group=8112
recover_EXT2: s_blocksize=4096
recover_EXT2: s_blocks_count 2141184
recover_EXT2: part_size 17129472
     MS Data                283997118  301126589   17129472
     ext4 blocksize=4096 Large_file Sparse_SB Backup_SB, 8770 MB / 8364 MiB

LVM magic value at 18779/29/34
     Linux Swap             417780000  417780015         16
     SWAP2 version 0, pagesize=8192, 8192 B

LVM magic value at 27041/170/4

LVM magic value at 30433/229/47

LVM magic value at 33531/109/45

recover_EXT2: s_block_group_nr=0/115, s_mnt_count=4/4294967295, s_blocks_per_group=32768, s_inodes_per_group=8192
recover_EXT2: s_blocksize=4096
recover_EXT2: s_blocks_count 3794432
recover_EXT2: part_size 30355456
     MS Data                571317688  601673143   30355456
     ext4 blocksize=4096 Large_file Sparse_SB, 15 GB / 14 GiB

block_group_nr 81

recover_EXT2: "e2fsck -b 2654208 -B 4096 device" may be needed
recover_EXT2: s_block_group_nr=81/115, s_mnt_count=0/4294967295, s_blocks_per_group=32768, s_inodes_per_group=8192
recover_EXT2: s_blocksize=4096
recover_EXT2: s_blocks_count 3794432
recover_EXT2: part_size 30355456
     MS Data                589088358  619443813   30355456
     ext4 blocksize=4096 Large_file Sparse_SB Backup_SB, 15 GB / 14 GiB

LVM magic value at 41263/101/33

LVM magic value at 41509/45/36

LVM magic value at 42120/11/22

LVM magic value at 42469/71/26

recover_EXT2: s_block_group_nr=0/476, s_mnt_count=1/4294967295, s_blocks_per_group=32768, s_inodes_per_group=8192
recover_EXT2: s_blocksize=4096
rec

sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/loop0: 1.9 GiB, 2029981696 bytes, 3964808 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop1: 89.1 MiB, 93417472 bytes, 182456 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop2: 54.7 MiB, 57294848 bytes, 111904 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop3: 44.9 MiB, 47063040 bytes, 91920 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop4: 160.2 MiB, 167931904 bytes, 327992 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop5: 4.2 MiB, 4403200 bytes, 8600 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop6: 14.8 MiB, 15462400 bytes, 30200 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop7: 956 KiB, 978944 bytes, 1912 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/sda: 465.9 GiB, 500277790720 bytes, 977105060 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt
Disk identifier: 7E25BCD8-0A34-436E-9DD1-4D050FB0FE5C

Device     Start    End Sectors  Size Type
/dev/sda1     40 409639  409600  200M EFI System
/dev/sda2     34     39       6    3K Apple HFS/HFS+

Partition 2 does not start on physical sector boundary.
Partition table entries are not in disk order.


Disk /dev/sdc: 14.4 GiB, 15502147584 bytes, 30277632 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x6e037a9d

Device     Boot Start     End Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdc1  *        0 4153407 4153408    2G  0 Empty
/dev/sdc2       12012   16939    4928  2.4M ef EFI (FAT-12/16/32)


Disk /dev/loop8: 3.7 MiB, 3825664 bytes, 7472 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/loop9: 152.7 MiB, 160071680 bytes, 312640 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes                                                    

sudo separated -l

Model: ATA APPLE SSD SM0512 (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 500GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size   File system  Name                  Flags
 2      17.4kB  20.5kB  3072B               MacOS
 1      20.5kB  210MB   210MB  fat32        EFI System Partition  boot, esp


Error: The primary GPT
table is corrupt, but the backup appears OK, so that will
be used.
OK/Cancel? cancel
Model: Kingston DataTraveler 3.0 (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdc: 15.5GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: unknown
Disk Flags:

I am connected to a Pendrive from Ubuntu Live.
Please help 🙁

Best Forex Robot Free Download! Full version!

Tried to download Python CSV file

I am trying to download a CSV file attached to this link "blob: https: //ourworldindata.org/9215e778-e751-4e03-a7a3-f267f5c10329".

Every time I make these code requests, this exception is thrown: "request.exceptions.InvalidSchema: For & # 39; blob: https: //ourworldindata.org/9215e778-e751-4e03-a7a3-f267f5c10329" no connection adapters were found .

Can someone help me solve this problem or explain why?

import requests
url = 'blob:https://ourworldindata.org/9215e778-e751-4e03-a7a3-f267f5c10329' 
user_agent = 'Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 10.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/6.0) LinkCheck by Siteimprove.com'
headers = {'User-Agent': user_agent}
response = requests.get(url,headers=headers)
print(response)

Why can't i download? – Stack Exchange for Android enthusiasts

I rooted my device once to remove bloatware. But I thought a download manager wasn't necessary on my phone, so I uninstalled it. When I have done that, I cannot download anything. I tried all the common steps to fix this but none worked. So I thought that uninstalling the Download Manager only caused further problems. please help

c ++ – simple parallel download via a connection pool class with cpprestsdk

The following is a simple class for making multiple http connections, mainly for downloading a list of small files:

#include 
#include
#include
#include 
#include 

using namespace utility;                    // Common utilities like string conversions
using namespace web;                        // Common features like URIs.
using namespace web::http;                  // Common HTTP functionality
using namespace web::http::client;          // HTTP client features
using namespace concurrency::streams;       // Asynchronous streams

    class ConnectionPool
{
public:
    ConnectionPool(size_t nWorkers, std::wstring baseUri) :BaseUri(baseUri)
    {
        for (size_t i = 0; i < nWorkers; i++) Pool.emplace_back(http_client(baseUri), http_request(methods::GET));
    }

    void ResetState(size_t nWorkers, std::wstring baseUri)
    {
        BaseUri = baseUri;
        nDone = 0;
        Pool.clear();
        for (size_t i = 0; i < nWorkers; i++) Pool.emplace_back(http_client(baseUri), http_request(methods::GET));
    }

    void ResizePool(size_t nWorkers)
    {
        Pool.resize(nWorkers, { http_client(BaseUri) , http_request(methods::GET) });
    }

    /*template
    void DownloadAsync(std::vector Uris, const Function& f)//Not implemented
    {
        WorkItems = Uris;
        const size_t limit = (std::min)(Pool.size(), WorkItems.size());
        for (size_t i = 0; i < limit; i++) assignWork(i, f);
    }*/

    template
    void DownloadSync(const std::vector Uris, const Function& f)
    {
        std::wcout << "*DownloadSync Started*" << std::endl;
        WorkItems = Uris;
         for (size_t i = nDone = 0, limit = nActive = std::min(Pool.size(), WorkItems.size()); i < limit; ++i) assignWork(i, f);

        std::unique_lock lk(m1);
        cv.wait(lk, (&)() { return nActive == 0; });
        std::wcout << "*DownloadSync Ended*" << std::endl;
    }

    template
    void assignWork(int pidx, const Function& f)
    {
        //m2 isn't needed, right?!
        //m2.lock();
        if (nDone >= WorkItems.size())
        {
            std::lock_guard lk(m1);
            --nActive;
            cv.notify_one();
            //m2.unlock();
            return;
        }
        const auto wItem = WorkItems(nDone);
        int cIdx = nDone;
        ++nDone;
        //m2.unlock();

        std::wcout << L"Worker " << pidx << L": Assigning/t" << wItem << L" succeed" << std::endl;
        auto& (client, request) = Pool(pidx);

        request.set_request_uri(wItem);
        client.request(request).then((=)(pplx::task   responseTask) {
            try {
                if (auto response = responseTask.get(); response.status_code() == http::status_codes::OK)
                {
                    f(response, cIdx);
                    std::wcout << L"Worker " << pidx << L": Downloading/t" << wItem <> Pool;
    std::vector WorkItems;
    std::wstring BaseUri;
    std::mutex m1/*,m2*/;
    std::condition_variable cv;
    std::atomic nActive = 0, nDone = 0;
};

int main()
{
//....code....//
ConnectionPool con(n, L"base url");
        con.DownloadSync(urls, ()(http_response res, int idx)
            {
                auto outFile = fstream::open_ostream(std::to_wstring(idx) + L".ext").get();
                res.body().read_to_end(outFile.streambuf()).wait();
                outFile.close().wait();
            });
}

Internet Download Manager v6.36 Build 5 Full Multilingual Incl – Discount 100% | Proxies-free

Internet Download Manager (IDM) full
(IMG)
is a device to develop download speeds through numerous occasions, resume and schedule downloads.
Completely troubleshooting and resuming capacity will result in an improper restart or impaired downloads due to lost affiliations.
Problems, PC shutdowns or unexpected power failures. The essential practical user interface makes IDM uncomplicated and easy to use.

IDM has a clever resuscitation method for resuscitation that offers a smart, interesting division of records and secure development of multi-part downloads to stimulate your downloads. Not at all like other download managers and invigorating operators. Internet Download Manager bits logically downloaded reports during the download process and reused the available relationship without additional interface and login phases to achieve the best possible execution.
IDMAN supports the mediation of servers, FTP and http shows, firewalls, redirects, treats, notes, sound and video substances. IDM enables the perfect management of your downloads in Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape, MSN Explorer, AOL, Opera, Mozilla, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Firebird, Avant Browser, MyIE2 and all other conspicuous projects. You can move records in a similar way or use the Internet Download Manager from the request line. The Internet Download Manager can choose your modem at the specified time, download the required reports and then hang up your PC or even shut it down when it is set.
The interpretation includes Windows 10 similarity and the IDM download board for web players. In addition, it offers full support for Windows 8.1 (Windows 8, Windows 7 and Vista), Page Grabber, a newly developed scheduler and support for MMS shows. The new structure similarly includes an improved mix for IE 11 and IE-based projects, an updated and redesigned download engine, the extraordinary shift in coordination into every newest program, an improved toolbar, and an abundance of different upgrades and new integrations .
Software license: Full (all options)
Price: $ 24.95
Discount: 100% discount

Download gestyy.com/w9sZNF

Is it possible to download and install multiple versions of Safari on macOS?

Is it possible to download and install multiple versions of Safari on macOS?
I need to test something on my MacBook with the latest version of Safari (13), but I don't want to update my current Safari browser to the latest version. I want to be able to keep my current older version of Safari Untouched and the latest version of Safari that can be installed and used on my Mac. Is that possible?

Windows 10 online download: how to sync and omit duplicates between directories

I have a url link with 8 directories of files. I want to download these files to my desktop hard drive. I need to enter a username and password to enter the url and access the directories. There are 80 files in directory 1. There are 90 files in directory 2. 80 files in directory 2 correspond exactly to 80 files in directory 1. But also in directories 4, 6 and 8. There are also duplicates from other directories in the URL, but the duplicate files all have the same name. I just want a copy of a file that has its unique name. After the first download in a certain directory, a file of the same name should not be downloaded again.

I use Windows 10 Pro x64 for my computer setup. I've tried the following code, but it doesn't prevent duplicates between directories:

wget --user=NAME --password='PASSWORD' -nc URL

Is there a script (or two) that I need to solve this problem? Or something other than wget? Thanks a lot.

el capitan – How can I download an older version of OS X / macOS?

NEWS
October 2019
Due to the certificate problem Apple faced and which overtook all previous MacOS installers overnight, they have re-released several of them with new certificates.

Apple KB – When an installer indicates that it cannot be verified or signed with an expired certificate
This contains links to additional KBs for each of the 6 latest operating systems from Catalina back to Yosemite.
The three newer ones link to the App Store, but Sierra, El Capitan & Yosemite link to direct downloads.

Notice to those of us who want to keep all of this "just in case".
Download them one by one and label them correctly before downloading another so you know which one is. They cannot be identified by the name of the dmg or the installer which operating system it is:
Worse … even when you run it, you get absolutely no indication of which operating system to install. Caution.


The following would probably still apply if you tried to access something older than Yosemite …

General remark
This task seems to become increasingly difficult over time. A new fold is that many of these older installers, even if you can get them, have an "expiration date". The last widespread expiration date for many Mac installers was October 24, 2019, so you'll need to download your installers again after that date to keep them valid and signed.

If you see a message like that
"This copy of the Install OS X El Capitan application cannot be verified. It may have been corrupted or tampered with during download.",
or a vague one "There was an error preparing to install. Try it again. "
A new mistake seems to be …
No packages could be installed.

Set your watch to a date within one year of the first release date of the operating system if you absolutely cannot download it again.

From Michael Tsai's blog – installing old versions of macOS

It appears that the installer is signed with a certificate that has
expired. You can open and use the terminal when booting from the installation program
the date command to set the clock to the past, d. H. on the date
Version of MacOS was current. Be sure to set the after installation
Clock on the right date or various other things don't work
right.


[This section is still under construction.]
It appears that the new Mojave App Store no longer displays older operating system installers that you purchased, so the "easy way" to retrieve them from your purchase history is no longer valid.

Sierra, High Sierra & Mojave are available via direct links – see below.

When testing the El Capitan installer with a published URL, it will appear in the App Store. However, when prompted to download, "Not valid for this Mac" is no longer displayed, but "The requested version of macOS is not available".

Enter the image description here

A few more tests are required – contributions welcome – to determine if other operating system versions have been removed in a similar manner. We may need direct links for these that I don't currently have.

Additional note: –
I tried from VMs of older operating systems to recreate the app store as before in El Capitan & High Sierra to see if I could still access the old purchase history. Without success. The history is displayed as before, but I was unable to access older versions through it.
It seems that you actually need a physical Mac running these older operating systems to be able to use these older versions.


Sierra itself has now disappeared from everyone's purchase history. However, Apple keeps Sierra fully available, although High Sierra is not available. No Apple ID is required.

High Sierra Link tested by Mojave Jan 2019 – still works for download, although this is done through the new Software Update Control Panel. It doesn't run on a Mojave Mac, but you have the installer in your Apps folder to move it to another location


I successfully re-tested this method in January 2019 – it still works as stated for a Mac that is limited to El Capitan. Purchased older operating systems are still listed and accessible

The easiest way – if available – is to use your purchase history in the App Store.
If you have previously installed an OS X version, this is still available in this list. This should include all public beta versions.

The version available from this list is always the latest version of its type – i.e. H. 10.7.5, 10.8.6 … 10.11.6

Image heavily modified to show only operating system versions.Enter the image description here

Note that download or install will appear depending on whether you saved the installation file locally or not – even on a non-boot drive.


If the version you want to download is older than the Mac you want to download to, the store will not allow the download.
[Looking for workarounds for this part – changes welcome – I can't test this since the latest Mac I have is a 2012 Mac Pro.]

Possible workarounds must be tested –
How to download Lion again from Mountain Lion


If you're trying to update an older computer with Snow Leopard or Lion, you can download a special version of El Capitan from the App Store

This version of El Capitan is for users with OS X or Snow Leopard
OS X Lion who wants to upgrade to macOS High Sierra. If you are
Run Snow Leopard or Lion and want to upgrade to High Sierra,
You must first install El Capitan. This version of El Capitan can
can also be installed on computers that are not compatible with High
Sierra.

Note that the last sentence … This version is not installed on any computer Not currently on Snow Leopard or Lion, if the machine can run High Sierra.
This makes it a very specific resource and not a general map for everyone who wants El Capitan.

Enter the image description here


If you need to reinstall from Recovery and have previously run Sierra 10.12.4 or later, 3 options are now available.
Hold down the appropriate key combination on the boot chimes …

  • Cmd ⌘ R.
    Reinstall the latest MacOS installed on your Mac without upgrading to a later version
  • Opt ⌥ Cmd ⌘ R.
    Update to the latest MacOS that is compatible with your Mac
  • Shift ⇧ Opt ⌥ Cmd ⌘ R.
    Reinstall the MacOS that came with your Mac or the closest version that is still available.

The first two options are available for any Mac that is newer than Lion [around 2009].


If you have access to an older operating system point version, 10.11.0, etc. and want to upgrade, you can download Combo Updater from Apple, which includes everything you need to go directly to the latest point version in one step, e.g. 10.11.6

Google is good at finding them as the top hit if you just search combo update 10.11 etc but here are left to a couple

Mavericks 10.9.5
Yosemite 10/10/5
El Capitan 11/10/6
Sierra 10.12.6
High Sierra 10.13.6


If you need to create a bootable USB stick from which you can install it

How do I make a bootable USB flash drive on a Mac?

How do I create a bootable Mac USB drive on Windows?


  1. Find a friend who can access the download [recommended]

  2. Find a torrent / sharing site [not recommended]

Additional note:
There is no "legitimate" way to download macOS from a Mac other than Mac. It requires the Apple App Store.


Note: You cannot use a Time Machine backup to revert to an operating system that is older than the last backup operating system on that Time Machine drive.

This means that you must replace the Time Machine drive before you can upgrade the operating system so that you can always use a previous backup and operating system with your Time Machine backup. This is because once the Time Machine drive sees the new operating system, it cannot return to the older operating system it is using. You can still select data manually from the Time Machine, but you cannot use it to restore to the older operating system.