Can r7rs scheme raise-continuable be said to implement algebraic effects?

page 54 at


For clarity, transcribing the example to pseudoJS syntax yields

try {
  return 23 + raiseContinuable('should be a number');
} catch function(con) { //"catch function" because return in the handler returns from catch block, not from outer function
  if (typeof con === 'string') {
  } else {
    console.log('a warning has been issued');
  return 42;

Ostensibly it looks “it” to me, or at least very close. However, in literal sense it describes a type of exception mechanism, while algebraic effect is said to be more generic, and so maybe this is missing some details / facets to be properly called such?

Radioactive lens effects seen on film?

I have a Super Takumar 50mm f/1.4, one of the more common lenses with a thoriated rear element. I’ve owned it for forty years, and a couple times left 400 speed film in the camera for several months with the lens mounted, and never seen any effect.


First, between the lens and the film is a mirror and shutter curtain (in an SLR — in a Speed Graphic with an Aero Ektar, there’s more distance, as well as a dark slide in almost all cases).

Second, because the primary radiation from decaying thorium is alpha particles (helium nuclei stripped of their electrons); they have very little penetrating power (in most cases, a few inches of air or a single sheet of paper will stop nearly all of them, never mind the metal reflective coating and glass of an SLR mirror). Virtually no alpha particles will penetrate metal parts of the camera body or lens body. Therefore the only radiation that could expose the film must pass through the reflex mirror, its mount plate (usually thin metal), and the shutter curtain (either opaque cloth as in my Spotmatic SP or metal blades as in my Ricoh Singlex II) — and again, that isn’t going to happen with alpha, or not enough of it to matter.

Now, most of these radioactive lenses are fifty-some years old (some as much as three decades older than that), so of course they have other decay products mixed with the thorium in the thoriated element(s), but most natural decay paths still produce primarily alpha radiation, with occasional beta (loose positrons, which produce gamma photons when they annihilate with an electron) and almost never direct gamma emission; beta penetrates more than alpha, but so little is produced that it won’t expose the film in a reasonable time, nor (apparently) will the gamma produced by beta annihilations.

So, bottom line, even several months with the lens mounted on an SLR and 400 speed film loaded in the camera produces no noticeable fogging, at least in my experience since the early 1980s. The answer might be different if the camera shutter was locked open and mirror up (with lens capped, I presume), but that would be very, very unusual situation.

dnd 5e – Does picking up an item while under the effects of the Invisibility spell turn it invisible?

dnd 5e – Does picking up an item while under the effects of the Invisibility spell turn it invisible? – Role-playing Games Stack Exchange


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dnd 5e – Do the effects of the “beard” attack from a bearded devil interfere with recovering from the infernal wound from its “glaive” attack?

When a feature prevents its target from the regain of hit points, it does not prevent receiving healing.

No rule explicitly talks about a healing minimum, so we should assume that healing that features reduce to 0 still counts as receiving healing, similar to how receiving damage that features reduce to 0 counts as taking damage.

See Healing:

When a creature receives healing of any kind, hit points regained are
added to its current hit points.

Here we can explicitly see the logical distinction of receiving healing as a cause of regaining hit points. The order is explicitly not such that you need to regain hit points to receive healing.

Bearded Devil:

the target can’t regain hit points

Here we see that the beard attack doesn’t prevent healing. It only prevents the regain of hit points.

The glaive attack also has a specific inbuilt mechanic that doesn’t restore hit points and staunches the wound:

Any creature can take an action to stanch the wound with a successful
DC 12 Wisdom (Medicine) check.

Python error inside worker for map_async effects execution plan

folks. I’ve faced this issue and I’m curious about what’s going on.
The Pool forks 3 processes. My further assumptions: each process will pull tasks from the parent task queue. As we see process didn’t die but some of the tasks are skipped. Maybe anyone has an ideas?

from multiprocessing import Pool
import os

def wrk(a):
    if a % 3 == 0:
        print(a, os.getpid(), 'GONNA DIE')
        raise ValueError('ERROR')
        print(a, os.getpid())

if __name__ == '__main__':
    with Pool(processes=3) as pool:
        p = pool.map_async(wrk, (i for i in range(50)))


0 29836 GONNA DIE
5 29835
6 29835 GONNA DIE
10 29836
11 29836
12 29836 GONNA DIE
15 29836 GONNA DIE
20 29836
21 29836 GONNA DIE
25 29835
26 29835
27 29835 GONNA DIE
30 29836 GONNA DIE
35 29835
36 29835 GONNA DIE
40 29836
41 29836
42 29836 GONNA DIE
45 29835 GONNA DIE

architecture – Creating a structure for adding items with effects in c++ without circular definitions

I’ve run into a problem while developing a text adventure. I’d like players to be able to “use” an item, which would cause the item to have an effect on the player or environment. The way I’m trying to do this now involves an abstract “Effect” class which specific effects inherit from, which looks like this:

class IEffect{
    std::string name;
    std::string id;

    virtual void Perform(Item* _item, Actor* _actor) = 0;

    std::string GetName(){
        return name;

    std::string GetID(){
        return id;

The specific problem that I’m running into is this:

Effects.h:11:26: error: 'Item' has not been declared
 virtual void Perform(Item* _item, Actor* _actor) = 0;
Effects.h:11:39: error: 'Actor' has not been declared
 virtual void Perform(Item* _item, Actor* _actor) = 0;

I’ll admit, I’m not the most experienced, so I tried to just include the item and actor classes at the head of the file. However, My item class was already including the effect class, which made a circular definition, which understandably doesn’t fly. The player class includes an “Inventory” object, which obviously includes the item class, which leads to the same circular definition.

The Perform method passes an item and actor so that the use string can say which item uses the effect, and so that the effect knows what actor to apply itself to. I have a “UsableItem” class which all items with effects would inherit from, which looks like this:

class UsableItem : public Item{
    IEffect* effect

    UsableItem(std::string _id, std::string _name, std::string _desc, int _val, IEffect* _effect){
        id = _id;
        name = _name;
        desc = _desc;
        value = _val;
        effect = _effect;
    IEffect* GetEffect(){
        return effect;


Actually calling the effects was done elsewhere by calling GetEffect() and calling the effect, passing in the relevant item and actor.

I want to use a structure like this so I can create new effects and items quickly and simply.

Specifically, I want to know this: How do I create a structure so that I can add new effects and have items to carry those effects without running into circular definitions? How do I fix this?

poison – Are Androids immune to all inhalation effects? (Starfinder)

My party and I can’t seem to come to a good agreement on the extent of the Constructed Racial trait with regards to breathing.

The Android Constructed racial trait reads:

…androids do not breathe or suffer the normal environmental effects of being in a vacuum.

Starfinder #36: Professional Courtesy pg. 47 expanded on this, saying that androids could not drown:

Certain effects, such as androids’ constructed racial trait, the life bubble spell, and the water breathing universal creature rule allow creatures to mitigate or ignore [suffocation from drowning].

My initial interpretation of this was:

  1. Androids do not breathe, and therefore do not interact with the breathing game mechanic,
    • used as an infection mechanism in certain diseases and poisons, and
    • used in the suffocation mechanics found in water, vacuums, and other situations where air would be limited.
  2. Further, they do not suffer the bludgeoning damage etc caused by sudden or prolonged exposure to a vacuum.

My party is of the opinion that this would be rather overpowered, and that the breathing mention should rather be read as supporting text to the succeeding phrase. This could then be rephrased as:

  • “Androids do not suffer any ill effects caused by vacuums, since they don’t really need to

This argument is supported by the fact that the text takes time to specifically mention that androids have resistance to poisons, but fails to mention the far-reaching effects and flat-out immunity that would be provided by the total non-participation in this gaming mechanic.

Am I over thinking this? What would the correct interpretation of this be?

Creating visual effects using procedural algorithms

i’m a beginner in Unity, i’ve learned in Graphics course about algorithms of procedural textures/modeling.
I would like to use these algorithms to create visual effects – fire, smoke, lighting, snow, etc..
Does someone know how to create those effects using Perlin Noise, L-System, Voronoi or any other procedural algorithm in Unity? Better without using prepared prefabs or Particles System.


damage – What is the interaction of ongoing effects targeting a monster weakness?

@Rumel answers your specific instance correctly; Angelic Halo doesn’t actually damage anything. But as for your general question…

The Weakness rules state, rather simply:

Whenever you would take that type of damage, increase the damage you take by the value of the weakness.

An ongoing damage source, like Sepulchral Mask, would trigger a creature’s Weakness (in this case to mental damage) every time the creature takes damage from it. Similarly, persistent damage (such as the Paladin’s Divine Strike) triggers Weakness to Good damage every time the persistent damage triggers. This can lead to a lot of damage if utilized strategically, but it’s generally accounted for in the creature’s stat block already, so I wouldn’t worry about it being too powerful.

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