How can you ensure that vulnerability management does not compromise security?

When running vulnerability scans, a particular version of say is often searched Node.js is reported as vulnerable along with the recommendation to upgrade to a higher version. Then we also have uncertainty TLS. SSL Protocols like TLS 1.0 and SSL 3.0 and it is recommended to disable them completely. For me, each of the recommendations above is a change that needs to be applied to a specific application, host, etc. Now I'm wondering if you can make sure that neither change leads to a change reduced or security at risk? How can you ensure that the new version of Node.js does not contain any more serious vulnerabilities / vulnerabilities? How does change management fit in? Is it a change request to update the version of Node.js or disable insecure TLS / SSL protocols? Isn't it so?

Do replicated, distributed multi-primary systems ensure sequential consistency?

I know that replicated, distributed primary backup systems ensure sequential consistency. My question is whether multi-primary systems can achieve this. I mean, if you use Consencus (i.e., Paxos algorithm) to arrange an order for the requests received, sequential consistency is likely to be achieved. However, if you use data types that are replicated without conflict, sequential consistency is achieved.

How can I ensure that interface implementations are implemented as expected?

Assume that there is a SomeMethod member in an ISomeInterface interface as follows:

public interface ISomeInterface
    {
        int SomeMethod(string a);
    }

For the purposes of my program, all ISomeInterface consumers assume that the returned int is greater than 5.

Three ways come to mind to solve this –

1) For each object that ISomeInterface uses, it is confirmed that the returned int is> 5.

2) For each object that ISomeInterface implements, you specify that the int you want to return is> 5.

The above two solutions are cumbersome because the developer has to remember to do this every time they implement or use ISomeInterface. It also depends on the implementation of the interface, which is not a good thing.

3) The only way to put this into practice is to have a wrapper that also implements ISomeInterface and returns the underlying implementation as follows:

public class SomeWrapper : ISomeInterface
    {
        private ISomeInterface obj;

        SomeWrapper(ISomeInterface obj)
        {
            this.obj = obj;
        }

        public int SomeMethod(string a)
        {
            int ret = obj.SomeMethod("hello!");
            if (!(ret > 5))
                throw new Exception("ret < 5");
            else
                return ret;
        }
    }

The problem, however, is that we are now again relying on an implementation detail from ISomeInterface about what the SomeWrapper class does, although we have now limited it to a single location.

Is this the best way to ensure that an interface is implemented as expected, or is there a better alternative? I understand that interfaces may not have been designed for this, but then what is the best way to use an object, assuming that it behaves better in a certain way than what I convey in an interface's member signatures can, without any statements being required for each object times is it instantiated? An interface seems to be a good concept if I could only specify additional things or restrictions to implement.

Networking – How can I ensure that my OpenVPN is used for all internet traffic, even after a restart?

I want to allow my PC to communicate with all LAN devices (10.0.0.0/24), but only allow traffic outside my network to use my ExpressVPN connection.

ExpressVPN does not offer an IP list, so I also have to allow DNS and 1195 UDP to establish the VPN connection.

I tried to use ufw but am concerned that my rules are wrong or allow leaks. I'm overwhelmed, but I'm trying to learn.

sudo ufw enable
sudo ufw --force reset
sudo ufw default deny incoming
sudo ufw default deny outgoing
sudo ufw allow out on tun0
sudo ufw allow out on enp2s0 to any port 53,67,68,1195 proto udp
sudo ufw allow in on enp2s0 from 10.0.0.0/24

object-oriented – do you have to think about encapsulation if you can ensure immutability?

The question

Transfer your question into real life:

Is it okay for your doctor to publicly post your private medical records on Facebook, provided no one (other than you) can change this?

Is it okay for me to let strangers into your house, provided they can't steal or damage anything?

It requires the same thing. The basic assumption of your question is that the only problem with data disclosure is that it can be changed. According to your reference material:

Encapsulation is used to hide the values ​​or status of a structured data object within a class, thus preventing unauthorized persons direct access to them.

The ability to change values ​​or states is definitely the biggest concern, but it's not the only concern. "Direct access" is more than just write access. Read access can also be a vulnerability.

A simple example of this is that you are generally advised against displaying stack traces to an end user. Not only because errors should not occur, but because stack traces sometimes reveal certain implementations or libraries, which means that an attacker knows the internal structure of your system.

Exception batch tracking is read-only, but can be useful for those who want to attack your system.


Encapsulation as a protective device

To prevent write access, you would also have to be immutable until the end. Take this example:

public class Level1
{
    public string MyValue { get; set; }
}

public class Level2 // immutable
{
    public readonly Level1 _level1;

    public Level2(Level1 level1) { _level1 = level1; }
}

public class Level3 // immutable
{
    public readonly Level2 _level2;

    public Level3(Level2 level2) { _level2 = level2; }
}

We have left Level2 and Level3 Expose your read-only fields, which in your question is certain: read access, no write access.

and yet, as a consumer of a Level3 Object, I can do that:

// fetch the object - this is allowed behavior
var myLevel3 = ...; 

// but this wasn't the intention!
myLevel3.Level2.Level1.MyValue = "SECRET HACK ATTACK!";

This code compiles and runs fine. Because read access to a field (e.g. myLevel3.Level2) gives you access to an object (Level2), which in turn has read access to another object (Level1), which in turn exposes Read and write Access to his MyValue Property.

And that's the danger of making everything invariably public. Every mistake becomes visible and becomes an open door for undesirable behavior. By exposing some things unnecessarily that could be easily hidden, you have opened them up to the testing and abuse of vulnerabilities, if any.


Encapsulation for clean code

But that's not all you're using the encapsulation for.

Suppose my application wants to know the time, so I'll do one Calendar that tells me the date. I am currently reading this date as a string from a file (let's assume there is a good reason for it).

public class Calendar
{
    public readonly string fileContent; // e.g. "2020-01-28"

    public DateTime Date => return DateTime.Parse(fileContent);

    public Calendar()
    {
        fileContent = File.ReadAllText("C:\Temp\calendar.txt");
    }
}

fileContent should have been an encapsulated field, but I opened it based on your suggestion. Let's see where that leads us.

Our developers used this calendar. Let's look at Bob's library and John's library:

public class BobsLibrary
{
    // ...

    public void WriteToFile(string content)
    {
        var filename = _calendar.fileContent + ".txt"; // timestamp in filename
        var filePath = $"C:\Temp\{filename}";

        File.WriteAllLines(filePath , content);
    }
}

Bob used Calendar.fileContent, the field that should have been encapsulated, but not. But his code works and the field was public, so there is no problem at the moment.

public class JohnsLibrary
{
    // ...

    public void WriteToFile(string content)
    {
        var filename = _calendar.Date.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd") + ".txt"; // timestamp in filename
        var filePath = $"C:\Temp\{filename}";

        File.WriteAllLines(filePath , content);
    }
}

John used Calendar.Date, the property that should always be exposed. At first glance, you might think that John is doing the unnecessary work by converting string to a DateTime and back to a string, However, since his code works, no problem is raised.

Today we learned something with which we can save a lot of money: You can get the current date from the Internet! We no longer have to hire an intern every night to update our calendar file. Let's change ours Calendar classify accordingly:

public class Calendar
{
    public DateTime Date { get; }

    public Calendar()
    {
        Date = GetDateFromTheInternet("http://www.whatistodaysdate.com");
    }
}

Bob's code is broken! He no longer has access to fileContent, because we no longer parse our date from a string.

John's code still works and doesn't need to be updated. John used Date, the proposed public contract for the calendar. John did not build his code based on implementation details (i.e. fileContent from which we analyzed the date in the past) and therefore its code can easily handle changes to the implementation.

That is why the encapsulation is important. It allows you to separate your consumers (Bob, John) from your implementation (the calendar file) by using an intermediate interface (the DateTime Date). As long as the intermediary interface remains untouched, you can change the implementation without affecting consumers,

My example is a bit simplified, you'd rather use one interface Here and swap the specific class that implements the interface for another class that implements the same interface. However, the problem I pointed out remains the same.

What further steps can the Democrats take if Trump is acquitted to ensure that he is removed from the presidency?

Breaking: Donald Trump is on tape during a dinner with Lev Parnas, referring to Ambassador Yovanovich: & # 39; & # 39; Take her out & # 39; & # 39 ;.

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/live/2020/jan/ …

If the Republicans don't remove it, it shows that the entire party is nothing more than a criminal organization. Trump acts like a mafia kingpin.

I think Congress should call more witnesses if the Senate doesn't: Parnas, Bolton, Mcghan, Mulvaney, Pompeo, Giuliani.

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Virtual machines – Use 2 Hyper-V servers (without AD) with replication to ensure seamless switching

I have a very limited budget and little knowledge of it. Please take it with you.

We have a primary and a backup Hyper-V server. Replication runs from the primary to the secondary server. I have to switch one of the VMs from primary to secondary without interrupting the services provided by that VM.

This VM is a web server with a public website.

No data changes are written to the memory of this VM. – There is another VM in which the databases are hosted. The web server VM must be restarted after Windows updates while Secondary Hyper-V is running the latest replication image.
After restarting the VM on the primary server, the VM on the primary server should be active again. Then the Windows updates are replicated to the (again dormant) secondary Hyper-V.

In short: with 2 Hyper-V servers (not clustered – no Active Directory) I can run a VM on the secondary (without downtime of the service provided) and restart the VM on the primary and all users switch sessions back to the VM on the primary?

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Choose one of the following options: CentOS, Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora or Windows.
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– 24/7 technical support via email and weekly via the Internet
– Physical protection (24/7)
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– FTP access
– Windows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter Edition (monthly price): $ 140
– Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard Edition (monthly price): $ 25

Server E3-1230
Data Center: United States, Los Angeles

Starts at $ 69/Month
CPU: Intel Xeon E3-1230
RAM: 16 GB RAM
RAID software 0, 1, 10
Hard disk space: SSD 100 GB
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Data Center: Germany, Nuremberg

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Port – 1 Gbit / s
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Port – 1 Gbit / s
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Do you need another dedicated server? Check out the best and fastest dedicated Windows and Linux servers here!

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