In theory, it may be that the explicit rules of consensus have not changed. In practice, however, it cannot be synchronized without some special changes.
First, the network version is so old that no modern node software accepts connections from it. In addition, the format of the network messages has changed since the first version, so that it now contains a checksum of the message. The first version of the Bitcoin client had no checksum for messages. This difference in the network protocol leads to messages that do not make sense for any of the nodes in a connection.
In addition to changing the network message, the original Bitcoin client cannot find any nodes to connect to. Only a connection could be established via the IRC node detection, which has since been deactivated and removed. Therefore, you need to create the peer.dat file specifically to find a peer to connect to.
After all, the original Bitcoin client can no longer sync after branching in 2013 unless the number of BDB locks is increased. If the default settings are used, the locks expire at this point and the synchronization fails.
If you can avoid all of these problems (e.g., by using special node software specifically for syncing) and increasing the number of BDB locks, the original Bitcoin client should be able to sync the current blockchain, though very slow and may never be able to synchronize with the tip. Towards the current top of the blockchain, it will likely take longer to validate a block than to find a new block.
A few months ago I changed a version of Bitcoin Core to be compatible with Bitcoin 0.1.0 and then tried to sync it. The code for this is here. I stopped this experiment after a few days when it could only synchronize ~ 25,000 blocks.