## Advice for alternatives to unit testing when no expected value is known

I am writing several functions that I want to test. But, I have no way of knowing the true expected value, so I guess unit testing can’t be done here.

Any alternatives/solutions, or just expect to write correct code?

Posted on Categories Articles

## chemistry – NDSolve: InterpolatingFunction of Chemical Kinetics System Differs From Expected (AKA – Why Are My Plots Squiggly?)

I’m trying to use Mathematica (12.0.0) to model radiation chemical kinetics using a known reaction set, in this case it’s water radiolysis.

It solves the set of equations I throw at it without any errors, however the InterpolatingFunction it’s throwing out for the result is different from expected. The magnitudes in some cases is a bit off and most notably for a number of the products I’ve specified they are very irregular, being a bit “squiggly” where they should be smooth curves and straight lines.

I’ve put the same reactions/rate constants into other software (FACSIMILE) to show what outputs I should expect. One example below:

H (Mathematica) H (Facsimile) As you can see there are 5 peaks over the plot in the Mathematica plot whereas the FACSIMILE plot is smooth. My question is what is causing this behaivour and how can I resolve it?

Code below:

``````ClearAll("Global'*")

doserate = 10;
time = 60;
geaqa = 2.6*1.0364*10^-7;
gh = 0.6*1.0364*10^-7;
goh = 2.7*1.0364*10^-7;
gh2 = 0.45*1.0364*10^-7;
gh2o2 = 0.7*1.0364*10^-7;

kgeaqa = geaqa*doserate;
kgh = gh*doserate;
kgoh = goh*doserate;
kgh2 = gh2*doserate;
kgh2o2 = gh2o2*doserate;

kw2 = 7.26*10^9;
kw3 = 5*10^9;
kw4 = 4.8*10^9;
kw5 = 3.4*10^10;
kw6 = 3.5*10^10;
kw7 = 1.1*10^10;
kw8 = 1.4*10^10;
kw9 = 2.3*10^10;
kw10 = 1.3*10^10;
kw11 = 1.3*10^10;
kw12 = 3.6*10^7;
kw13 = 1.3*10^10;
kw14 = 1.13*10^10;
kw14a = 1.14*10^10;
kw15 = 1.13*10^10;
kw16 = 2.9*10^7;
kw17 = 1.1*10^10;
kw18 = 8.8*10^9;
kw19 = 8.4*10^5;
kw20 = 1*10^8;
kw21 = 3*10^-1;
kw22 = 5*10^5;
kw22a = 2.3*10^-7;
kw23 = 1.17*10^-3;
kw23b = 1.18*10^11;
kw24 = 8.9*10^-2;
kw24b = 4.78*10^10;
kw25 = 1.27*10^10;
kw25b = 1.4*10^6;
kw26 = 8.9*10^-2;
kw26b = 4.78*10^10;
kw27 = 1.27*10^10;
kw27b = 1.4*10^6;
kw28 = 4.78*10^10;
kw28b = 7.35*10^5;
kw29 = 1.27*10^10;
kw29b = 1.63*10^-1;
kw30 = 5.83;
kw30b = 2.1*10^10;
kw31 = 2.44*10^7;
kw31b = 1.74*10^1;
kw32 = 4.58*10^-5;
kw32b = 3.95*10^7;

rw2 = kw2*eaqa(t)^2*h2o(t)^2;
rw3 = kw3*h(t)^2;
rw4 = kw4*oh(t)^2;
rw5 = kw5*eaqa(t)*h(t)*h2o(t);
rw6 = kw6*eaqa(t)*oh(t);
rw7 = kw7*h(t)*oh(t);
rw8 = kw8*eaqa(t)*h2o2(t);
rw9 = kw9*eaqa(t)*o2(t);
rw10 = kw10*eaqa(t)*o2a(t)*h2o(t);
rw11 = kw11*eaqa(t)*ho2(t);
rw12 = kw12*h(t)*h2o2(t);
rw13 = kw13*h(t)*o2(t);
rw14 = kw14*h(t)*ho2(t);
rw14a = kw14a*h(t)*ho2(t);
rw15 = kw15*h(t)*o2a(t);
rw16 = kw16*oh(t)*h2o2(t);
rw17 = kw17*oh(t)*o2a(t);
rw18 = kw18*oh(t)*ho2(t);
rw19 = kw19*ho2(t)^2;
rw20 = kw20*o2a(t)*ho2(t)*h2o(t);
rw21 = kw21*o2a(t)^2*h2o(t)^2;
rw22 = kw22*h2o2(t);
rw22a = kw22a*h2o2(t);
rw23 = kw23*h2o(t);
rw23b = kw23b*hc(t)*oha(t);
rw24 = kw24*h2o2(t);
rw24b = kw24b*ho2a(t)*hc(t);
rw25 = kw25*h2o2(t)*oha(t);
rw25b = kw25b*ho2a(t)*h2o(t);
rw26 = kw26*oh(t);
rw26b = kw26b*hc(t)*oa(t);
rw27 = kw27*oh(t)*oha(t);
rw27b = kw27b*oa(t)*h2o(t);
rw28 = kw28*ho2(t);
rw28b = kw28b*hc(t)*o2a(t);
rw29 = kw29*ho2(t)*oha(t);
rw29b = kw29b*o2a(t)*h2o(t);
rw30 = kw30*h(t);
rw30b = kw30b*eaqa(t)*hc(t);
rw31 = kw31*h(t)*oha(t);
rw31b = kw31b*eaqa(t)*h2o(t);
rw32 = kw32*h(t)*h2o(t);
rw32b = kw32b*h2(t)*oh(t);

watersolver = NDSolve({eaqa'(t) == kgeaqa + rw30 + rw31 - rw2 - rw5 - rw6 - rw8 - rw9 - rw10 - rw11 - rw30b - rw31b,
h2o'(t) == rw7 + rw12 + rw16 + rw18 + rw22 + rw23b + rw25 + rw27 + rw29 + rw31 + rw32b - rw2 - rw5 - rw10 - rw20 - rw21 - rw23 - rw25b - rw27b - rw29b - rw31b - rw32,
h2'(t) == kgh2 + rw2 + rw3 + rw5 + rw32 - rw32b,
oha'(t) == rw2 + rw5 + rw6 + rw8 + rw10 + rw17 + rw20 + rw21 + rw23 + rw25b + rw27b + rw29b + rw31b - rw23b - rw25 - rw27 - rw29 - rw31 ,
oh'(t) == kgoh + rw8 + rw12 + rw14a + rw22a + rw26b + rw27b + rw32 - rw4 - rw6 - rw7 - rw16 - rw17 - rw18 - rw26 - rw27 - rw32b,
h2o2'(t) == kgh2o2 + rw4 + rw10 + rw14 + rw19 + rw20 + rw21 + rw24b + rw25b - rw8 - rw12 - rw16 - rw22 - rw22a - rw24 - rw25,
h'(t) == kgh + rw30b + rw31b + rw32b - rw3 - rw5 - rw7 - rw12 - rw13 - rw14 - rw14a - rw15 - rw30 - rw31 - rw32,
o2a'(t) == rw9 + rw28 + rw29 - rw10 - rw15 - rw17 - rw20 - rw21 - rw28b - rw29b,
ho2a'(t) == rw11 + rw15 + rw24 + rw25 - rw24b - rw25b,
hc'(t) == rw23 + rw24 + rw26 + rw28 + rw30 - rw23b - rw24b - rw26b - rw28b - rw30b,
oa'(t) == rw26 + rw27 - rw26b - rw27b,
o2'(t) == rw17 + rw18 + rw19 + rw20 + rw21 + rw22 - rw9 - rw13,
ho2'(t) == rw13 + rw16 + rw28b + rw29b - rw11 - rw14 - rw14a - rw18 - rw19 - rw20 - rw28 - rw29,
eaqa(0) == 0,
h2o(0) == 55.5,
h2(0) == 0,
oha(0) == 0,
oh(0) == 0,
h2o2(0) == 0,
h(0) == 0,
o2a(0) == 0,
ho2a(0) == 0,
hc(0) == 0,
oa(0) == 0,
o2(0) == 0,
ho2(0) == 0}, {eaqa, h2o, h2, oha, oh, h2o2, h, o2a, ho2a, hc, oa, o2, ho2}, {t, 0, 1})
``````

I’m fairly new to Mathematica and I’m still trying to learn all its intricacies/limits. Have I missed anything glaring? Is there a better InterpolatingFunction/NDSolve setting for what I’m trying to do? Am I running into some sort of limitation in Mathematica already? Any help on this would be much appreciated.

Many thanks.

Posted on Categories Articles

## gmail filter not behaving as expected

I’ve set up a gmail filter (the only one active on the account) with the following template

`Matches: subject:("Payment of €1.00 from")`

My understanding is that anything in quotes is treated a phrase, yet I’m seeing the filter firing on all subject lines, including many with no relationship to the subject line in my filter. Any ideas what I am doing wrong?

## sharepoint online – error no-unused-expression: unused expression, expected an assignment or function call

I am getting an error as:

error no-unused-expression: unused expression, expected an assignment or function call

at else statement in below code. And also showing error as:

missing semicolon

at same else statement. Below is the error image: ``````public async setPreselected() :Promise<string>{

let returnedValue : any = Constants.isPreSelectedRolePresent;

try {

const folderServerURL = this.state.listUrl + Constants.listsString + Constants.preferencesList;

let userRole= await UserPreferenceService.updateUserFolder(userTemp,"",folderServerURL,"");

if(userRole == Constants.prefNull)
{
this.setState({preSelected : "All"});

returnedValue =  Constants.isAll;

console.log("Previous preference is null, so setting role as ALL" + returnedValue);

return returnedValue;

}
else ( userRole !== null )
{

this.setState({preSelected:userRole });

return returnedValue;
}
}
catch(err)
{
console.log(err);
}
}
``````

What is the error I did not get in else statement. I gave spaces to just to check but still face the same error.

Posted on Categories Articles

## product – Magento 1.9 line 1: parser error : Start tag expected, ‘

my site was working fine but now when i open product editing page from backend (admin panel ) it shows me error .

``````2020-11-07T10:36:31+00:00 ERR (3): Warning: simplexml_load_string(): Entity: line 1: parser error : Start tag expected, '&lt;' not found  in /home2/fillcraf/public_html/lib/Varien/Simplexml/Config.php on line 510
``````

2020-11-07T10:36:31+00:00 ERR (3): Warning: simplexml_load_string(): /* in /home2/fillcraf/public_html/lib/Varien/Simplexml/Config.php on line 510
2020-11-07T10:36:31+00:00 ERR (3): Warning: simplexml_load_string(): ^ in /home2/fillcraf/public_html/lib/Varien/Simplexml/Config.php on line 510

is anybody know how to fix it ? Help me its urgent

Posted on Categories Articles

## Python Socket – ValueError: too many values to unpack (expected 2)

I am having issues with the socket only recieving data, but not the address so I cannot send packets such as an acknowledgement to the original sender. I am implementing a go-back-N with a sender and receiver.
Here is the error:

``````Traceback (most recent call last):
File "./netster.py", line 128, in <module>
main()
File "./netster.py", line 120, in main
run_server(args.host, int(args.port), udp=args.udp, rudp = args.rudp, filename=f)
File "./netster.py", line 27, in run_server
rudp_gobackn_recv(port, kwargs('filename'))
File "/Users/a3.py", line 352, in rudp_gobackn_recv
ValueError: too many values to unpack (expected 2)
``````

Here is the receiver side of things, a code snippet showing how I initalize the packet and receive the data.

``````serversocket = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
serversocket.bind(('localhost', port))
...
``````

This is how I set up the sender socket:

``````clientsocket = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
``````

``````('localhost', 1234)
``````

1234 is an arbitrary port number.
Here is how I set up the packets to send, just in case it matters, and how I send it.

``````for x in range(len(window), window_size):
if not data:
end_bit = '1'
decoded_data = data.decode('utf-8')
packet = str(nextseqnum) + "@@" + str(end_bit) + "@@" + str(decoded_data)
nextseqnum = str(int(nextseqnum) + 1)
window.append(packet)
if not data:
break
``````

Here is how I send it:

``````for y in range(0, len(window)):
print("Window: ", window)
print("PACKET!!!!", window(y))
packet = window(y)
p = packet.encode('utf-8')
if(y == 0):
oldest_time = time.time()
``````

If I change the receiver code so it can compile to this:

``````data  = serversocket.recv(1500)
``````

The sender side of things prints out:

``````Window:  ('1@@0@@abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzn', '2@@1@@')
PACKET!!!! 1@@0@@abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

Socket ouput:  33
Window:  ('1@@0@@abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzn', '2@@1@@')
PACKET!!!! 2@@1@@
Socket ouput:  6
``````

Any thoughts on why it sends only the data, but not the server address? I’ve researched the issue but have had no success, as well as debugging it for awhile.

Posted on Categories Articles

## ReplaceAll in list not working as expected

This is my code.

``````lst = {1, 3, 5};
ReplaceAll[lst, lst[] -> {7, 9, 11}];
lst
``````

It is supposed to get output `{1, {7, 9, 11}, 5}`

However, it can only get `{1, 3, 5}` instead.

``````lst = {1, 3, 5};
lst[] = {7, 9, 11};
lst
``````

But this one above works. Can anyone explain this?

Posted on Categories Articles

## unity – Using nested classes not working as expected

There’s an important difference between your working and non-working versions.

In your working version, `Test` is a `MonoBehaviour`, directly visible to the Unity serializer. So it will automatically fill-in any `public` or `(SerializeField)` arrays and lists with empty (but non-`null`) versions if you don’t provide values yourself.

In your non-working version, you declared `disableMeshOnStart_` as `private`, meaning you forbid the serializer from seeing or modifying its contents. So it can’t get at the `disableMeshes` array to populate it with values, and it keeps the value you gave it, which was `null` since you never assigned to it in a field initializer or constructor.

The game objects are assigned properly in the inspector.

No, they are not, because `disableMeshOnStart_` is not shown in the inspector at all. You might be getting mixed up and looking at the `disableMeshOnStartGroup` instead, since that one is `public` and visible to the serializer… just not used by your code anywhere we can see.

So, a few fixes:

1. Declare `disableMeshOnStart_` as `public` or with a `(SerializeField)` attribute to allow the serializer to populate it. This will also allow it to show up in your Inspector so you can assign one or more meshes to `disableMeshes`, so it’s not just an empty array.

2. Add your own initializer like `public GameObject() disableMeshes = new GameObject(0)`; so that you’re guaranteed it has a non-`null` value when you try to use it.

3. Check whether the reference is `null` before trying to use it.

Posted on Categories Articles

## altcoin – How to get an expected profitability when mining ravencoins?

Input: a miner’s hashrate.

Output: an expected profitability of mining ravencoins (like whattomine does).

Questions:

1. Is there a formula that allows me to calculate an expected profit by a miner’s hashrate?
2. Is there a formula to get a network hashrate by a given network difficulty? Something similar to this answer, but for a Ravencoin.

I know there are a lot of similar answers here. But I would like to understand exactly in the case of Ravencoin. Thank you!

Posted on Categories Articles

## find expected value and variance using Poisson Distribution

how can we use Poisson distribution to find an expected value and variance for cars arrive to an intersection for 1 hour?

Posted on Categories Articles