memory – CPU faulty or Motherboard?

My PC in my work Suddenly shut down and didn’t boot. We figured that either it’s the motherboard or the PSU. After checking the PSU is fine and changing the motherboard, the pc managed to boot (the fans started working), but nothing else, I wasn’t even able to get into the bios. The Fans started shutting down and then started again repeatedly without getting to bios. After removing one of the RAM sticks the PC managed to boot to bios so I figured one of the RAM sticks have been damaged with the old motherboard. We changed both RAM sticks with a working pair , and yet the problem persists. It seems like the PC manage to boot with one of the slots only. So my question is this:
Could it be the new motherboard that I got is faulty and one RAM slot doesn’t work? Or was it the CPU which got some kind of damage with the old motherboard that now it can’t run with two RAM slots?

The PC is pretty old, 4th generation intel processor with DDR3 RAM sticks.

Network – How can a network device with a static IP address and a faulty gateway be restored?

In short, I made a stupid mistake.

I had set up my QNAP NAS to use the IP addresses and as the default gateway.

I then switched from this network to another via the web configuration interface and first changed the static IP to Unfortunately, the default gateway setting is not available in the same place, so I just thought I would change it after setting the new IP and netmask.

This excluded me from the NAS: if I try to reach him over HTTP on his new IP address, the packets are forwarded correctly, but the NAS never responds (I think that's because it is instructed to use 192.168. 1.254 to route what is enabled is a different subnet than its network interface so that the packets never leave the NAS).

Is there any way to get it back over HTTP? I've tried various things with Wireshark for debugging and for multiple interface settings on my computer, but I never get responses to the TCP packets sent to the NAS.

Interesting fact: ping works. It doesn't know ICMP very well, so I don't understand how the responses are sent to my computer, but they are safe!

As a side note, I cannot reset the network configuration of the NAS because I had disabled the quick reset using the reset button. The final step would be to extract the hard drives, copy the data, and start a new configuration from scratch.

Stay away from Hetzner – outdated systems, completely faulty support workflow

I still have 3 server contracts with Hetzner. Mainly because I didn't have time to move them.
Recently had problems with 2 of these servers. Regular expenses. One is SPAM (happens all the time to customers who don't comply with the rules) and one port scan to another (from time to time it also happens when the customer uses old software that somehow enables code injection or similar) , Who has never had such problems on the customer's servers? What did Hetzner do in both situations? The only way to completely block the servers is to remove them from the network. You cannot access them in any way or meaning. You are trying to ask for access through the support interface to check and fix the problem. However, this is not allowed because the support form is rejected with the message "Server is blocked. Correct the problem to continue". If you try the instruction in an automatic email, it will fail (links do not exist). You send an email to, the stupid guy on the other side. Copy and paste the answer "Can't do anything until you've fixed the problem". The server cannot be reached. How the hell do these stupid people want me to fix the problem?!? So they block your server, they keep asking for telepathy to fix it (I think ?!), but they keep charging you. Great service (just for them).

Stay away from these guys. Check out OVH where I have all my other servers and move these last 3. You have a modern, efficient, and autonomous way to solve these common problems. They block dangerous traffic by type and / or port. Never remove the server from the network or block all traffic. And even if you have an access problem (e.g. server cannot be reached because of a driver problem or a faulty drive or something similar), you can restart the server at any time in "rescue mode" so that you can immediately access it remotely via a Flash SO Access it How to mount your drives, find the problem, fix it, and bring it back online. Everything depends 100% on you and only on autonomous systems. No support needed. Solution available around the clock. You don't have to deal with stupid ass people.
How can Hetzner still be on the market with such supporters and outdated systems and methods? That doesn't fit with the German strictness that we're used to in other business areas … I'll stay away from these people.

Distributed Systems – Why is a Byzantine Fault Tolerance Threshold Set on an "Asynchronous" Network? (where it can't even tolerate a faulty node)

In the following answer (SHORTCUT: has been shown for Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement::

"We cannot tolerate that 1/3 or more of the knots are dishonest or we lose
either security or liveliness. "

The following conditions / requirements were taken into account for this verification:

  1. Our system is asynchronous,
  2. Some participants may be malicious.
  3. We want security.
  4. We want liveliness.

A basic question is:

Taking into account the well-known paper with the title: "Impossibility of a distributed consensus with a faulty process" (SHORTCUT:

Shows that:

No fully asynchronous consensus protocol can tolerate a single unannounced process death.

Can we still assume that the network is asynchronous? As in this case, the network cannot even tolerate a faulty node.

Network – Impossibility of a distributed consensus with a faulty process

In the following answer (SHORTCUT: has been shown for Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement::

"We cannot tolerate that 1/3 or more of the knots are dishonest or we lose
either security or liveliness. "

The following conditions / requirements were taken into account for this verification:

  1. Our system is asynchronous.
  2. Some participants may be malicious.
  3. We want security.
  4. We want liveliness.

A basic question is:

Taking into account the well-known paper with the title: "Impossibility of a distributed consensus with a faulty process" (SHORTCUT:

Shows that:

No fully asynchronous consensus protocol can tolerate a single unannounced process death.

Can we still assume that the network is asynchronous? As in this case, the network cannot even tolerate a faulty node.

How to improve faulty design systems

Before answering your question. I want you to understand what a design system is.

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A design system is usually a warehouse for the aesthetics of any application. It consists of a visual sample library, a sketch library, a component library that contains codes, usage guidelines for codes, guidelines for speech and sound, guidelines for using a design and animation language. Design systems are an efficient way of design-oriented development. And teamwork is required to be successful.

Here's why a design system fails and how it works:

  1. rework:
    Every system has to be renovated after a certain time. The same applies to a design system. Over time, the components may become unusable due to technological developments. Although they fit the design, they do not add any value to the design. The only way to fix this is to revisit or redesign these redundant components. The redesign should be prioritized. The selected components should not only fit the design, but also be flexible to take the technical changes into account.

  2. Synchronization:
    We live in a world where technology evolves every second minute. This also applies to design systems. Before the components are implemented, things are likely to develop further in the frontend. If the front-end technology doesn't match the back-end components, the design for the tank is safe. For this reason, timely synchronization of the front-end and back-end is important to ensure that a design system is successful.

  3. Maintenance:
    Any product will likely work if it is serviced on time. It is difficult to maintain the style guide after the product is launched and the initial excitement wears off. The process is less fun and may therefore be neglected. However, maintenance is a customer service for every application. By checking the apps in time, the design system is retained.

  4. Teamwork and coordination:
    Every product is a by-product of teamwork. For a design system to work well, it needs as much external support as internal support. By external support system we mean the support of the upper and lower levels of every organization. Teamwork and coordination become a priority in an organization that uses old and crispy code bases. Clear communication between the teams and the implementation of changes after approval by each team member is therefore the key to a successful design system.

  5. A dedicated team:
    For a design system to work well, a dedicated team must be deployed to ensure that it functions properly. A design system needs to be checked. It requires absolute investment and effort from a team that takes care of its functions. Failure to continually update the components of a design system will certainly fail. The only solution to this is to look at the design system with a falcon's eye. And this is only possible if there is a team that is committed to this work.

  6. Shared responsibility:
    When we mentioned a dedicated team, we also meant shared responsibilities. With a team that only takes care of a design system, you can delegate the responsibilities. This team can consist of engineers or designers, or can consist of designers and engineers. Your responsibilities are shared, e.g. B. Support by supporting others in setting up the design system, developing the design system, consistently creating a rollout plan and updating the system – the entire product management. The division of responsibilities reduces the workload of one or two people and ensures the smooth functioning of the design system.

  7. Communication:
    What makes every system lose its charm is the lack of teamwork or coordination. And for teamwork to take place, you have to close the communication gap in a targeted manner. It is likely that disagreements between designers and engineers differ. Eliminating these recurring differences is essential for the maintenance of a construction system. It can be difficult to make a final decision as there are likely to be some hits and mistakes. However, the only focus should be on the design system and how it can work better. If the team reaches a unanimous decision, you can rely on the success of the design system.

  8. User tests:
    If you want to know how well your design system is working and what changes can be made to it, you need to run user tests. Timely user feedback leads you to the required changes in the system. For example, if you get feedback after user testing that the color scheme of the design isn't attractive, and if you don't implement it, don't make sure that app users are attracted to it and remain committed to it. User tests ensure that your design system is updated in a timely manner and that there are fewer chances of failure.

  9. Design:
    We discussed several facets here that make your design system solid, but one of the most important and important elements is the design itself. The architecture of your system must be solid from the start. It should be flexible and futuristic. The existing design system must offer space for adjustments and subsequent growth with the changing market trends. A solid architecture can be achieved through namespace and semantic versioning. What is namespace? It is a systematic organization of the codes into different groups to prevent collisions of names.
    What is semantic versioning? Semantic Versioning or SemVer is a universal way to version software development. It ensures that every transition is tracked and better clarifies the technical upgrades that have taken place or are expected to take place. SemVer makes things clear and meaningful for the team.

  10. Reduce friction:
    Consumers use a construction system less often when it is out of date or when its functionality is impaired by continuous friction. This requires ensuring that the system has less friction by reducing cognitive development effort and designing the least resistance. If the design is overdeveloped and complicated, users are less likely to return to the application. Because a user will only keep an eye on the smooth functioning of an app.
    A user is not an expert in technical aspects when creating an app / design system. Therefore, it is noteworthy that the team is working to reduce the friction in the system to ensure that users return to the app.

In summary, it can be said that a product is constantly updating itself. In such cases, it is advantageous for the product to set up a design system.

on. You have to start with the basics and first approach the design. Building the design system on solid architecture should be the top priority for designers and engineers.

b. Designers and engineers have to work hand in hand and the communication gap has to be reduced by avoiding misunderstandings at every step.

c. The design system, every component of it, must be approved by the levels of the organization.

d. The synchronization of the frontend and backend must also be taken into account. The slightest technical development can lead to the entire design system collapsing like a house of cards.

e. And to ensure that your design system doesn't fail, you have to consider the user experience.

f. Every system requires rework and this should be taken into account if you want a design system. A timely revision of the system ensures that it is not out of date.

G. Finally, for the system to work properly, it must have a dedicated team that delegates responsibility and reviews the design components to ensure that they are updated from time to time.

Error – Magento 2.3.3 – 502 Faulty gateway – Centos – Nginx

After placing Magento 2.3.3 files in usr / share / nginx / html / magento & created database, do the following:

php bin/magento setup:install --base-url= --db-host=localhost --db-name="magento" --db-user="root" --db-password="" --admin-firstname="abc" --admin-lastname="abc" --admin-user="magento" --admin-password="magento" --language="en_US" --currency="INR" --timezone="Asia/Kolkata" --use-rewrites="1"

and also edit etc / nginx / conf.d / magento.conf

upstream fastcgi_backend {
  server unix:/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;

server {

  listen 8091;
  set $MAGE_ROOT /var/www/html/magento;
  include /var/www/html/magento/nginx.conf.sample;


How to fix a 502 bad gateway error?

When installing NVIDIA drivers: problems cannot be fixed, you have stopped faulty packages

I recently installed NVIDIA Driver v435 non-free on third-party v440 and I didn't like it and I want to switch back to v435, but when installing I get the following error message: Problems could not be solved because there were defective packages. How can you solve this problem?

Data Recovery – How can I use R-Linux to recover files from a faulty external USB drive on a Synology NAS?

I used R-Linux to recover files from a WD MyBookLive drive that cannot start. R-Linux can see the files I need, phew. Well, to save her. I use Ubuntu from a USB stick and the other USB port allows the drive in question to be connected via a SATA housing. The internal drive is full, so the only other drive that has enough space is a Synology NAS. This is shown in Ubuntu fine, but not in R-Linux as a possible destination for saving the recovered files. Gratefully received any help.