Machine learning – is there a way to find the greatest distance in the dendrogram?

I use hierarchical clustering. To find the optimal number of clusters using the dendrogram, I look at the longest vertical line that is not intersected by any horizontal line. The tutorial I use to learn this manually has guessed the longest line, but I was expecting Python to do this. In my opinion, it would be difficult to decide whether two lengths are almost the same and cannot be guessed. Is there a method or a way to find or display the greatest distance in the dendrogram, or at least something better than guessing it manually?

I know the elbow method, but I need this information about the dendrogram.

My code

# Importing the libraries
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import pandas as pd

# Importing the dataset
dataset = pd.read_csv('Mall_Customers.csv')
X = dataset.iloc(:, (3, 4)).values

# Using the dendrogram to find the optimal number of clusters
import scipy.cluster.hierarchy as sch
dendrogram = sch.dendrogram(sch.linkage(X, method = 'ward'))
plt.ylabel('Euclidean distances')


Python STV Voting System – Count the results and find the winners

I'm designing a Python voting system that uses the Single Transferable Voting Rule (STV), where a user can rate candidates from 1 to 4. Once a user casts their vote, their decisions are stored directly in SQLite tables, which are either president, faculty, or officer. The selections are stored as the actual names of the candidates in the tables above. So I have to count all the votes and then find out who took 1st to 4th place and then present the results for each candidate.

The difficulty I have is creating a function to reduce repetitive code. There are a total of 4 candidates for the presidency position (1 president), 12 for officer positions (3 officers) and 64 candidates for faculty officers (16 faculty officers, but 64 candidates can apply for the roles). My previous code is shown below:

conn = sqlite3.connect("VotingDatabase.db")
c.execute("SELECT * FROM PresidentVotes")

president_votes = ()

for column in c:
president_votes.append(PresidentVotes(voting_id=column(0), student_username=column(1), first_preference=column(2),
                                      second_preference=column(3), third_preference=column(4),

def create_obj(name, position, faculty, voting_list):
:param name: Name of the candidate as a string
:param position: Position of the candidate as a string
:param faculty: Faculty of the candidate as a string
:param voting_list: Voting objects saved as a list
:return: Iterates through the voting list and creates an instance of the Results class
first = 0
second = 0
third = 0
fourth = 0

for column in voting_list:
    if column.first_preference == name:
        first += 1
    elif column.second_preference == name:
        second += 1
    elif column.third_preference == name:
        third += 1
    elif column.fourth_preference == name:
        fourth += 1

return Results(name, position, faculty, first, second, third, fourth)

indi_franklin = create_obj("Indi Franklin", "President", "SB", president_votes)
andrei_keely = create_obj("Andrei Keely", "President", "SB", president_votes)
esther_barracks = create_obj("Esther Barracks", "President", "ES", president_votes)

As already mentioned, there are two other very similar SQLite tables that I have to read from the named FacultyVotes and OfficerVotes and create objects from them again (I did not show them here for reasons of space). Here is an example of my code to find the presidential position winner:

def find_president_winner():
# global pres_first_preference
globals()("first_preference_winner") = ""
globals()("second_preference_winner") = ""
globals()("third_preference_winner") = ""
globals()("fourth_preference_winner") = ""

# If Indi Franklin was first preference
if (indi_franklin.first_preference > andrei_keely.first_preference and indi_franklin.first_preference >
        esther_barracks.first_preference and indi_franklin.first_preference > ryan_hays.first_preference):
    globals()("first_preference_winner") = indi_franklin
# If Andrei was first preference
elif (andrei_keely.first_preference > indi_franklin.first_preference and andrei_keely.first_preference >
      esther_barracks.first_preference and andrei_keely.first_preference > ryan_hays.first_preference):
    globals()("first_preference_winner") = andrei_keely
# if Ryan was first preference
elif (ryan_hays.first_preference > andrei_keely.first_preference and ryan_hays.first_preference >
      indi_franklin.first_preference and ryan_hays.first_preference > esther_barracks.first_preference):
    globals()("first_preference_winner") = ryan_hays
# if Esther Barracks was first preference
elif (esther_barracks.first_preference > indi_franklin.first_preference and esther_barracks.first_preference >
      ryan_hays.first_preference and esther_barracks.first_preference > andrei_keely.first_preference):
    globals()("first_preference_winner") = esther_barracks

# if there is a tie between two or more results go to second preference
elif (esther_barracks.first_preference == indi_franklin.first_preference or esther_barracks.first_preference ==
      ryan_hays.first_preference or esther_barracks.first_preference == andrei_keely.first_preference or
      indi_franklin.first_preference == ryan_hays.first_preference or ryan_hays.first_preference ==
      andrei_keely.first_preference or andrei_keely.first_preference == indi_franklin.first_preference):
    # If Indi Franklin was second preference
    if (indi_franklin.second_preference > andrei_keely.second_preference and indi_franklin.second_preference >
            esther_barracks.second_preference and indi_franklin.second_preference > ryan_hays.second_preference):
        globals()("second_preference_winner") = indi_franklin

In the code above, I work through objects (examples of creating the objects are shown above) to find the winner. If there is no winner in a preference, I continue with the next preference. If there is a winner, I assign the candidate object to a variable so that I can easily output the results.

Again, the problem with this code is that it is too repetitive – I first need to create 80 objects for each candidate and then use those objects to find the candidates who won. I tried to create a function for all positions, but they all have a different number of candidates, hence a different number of if statements. The President Officer has four if statement blocks to find the winner. Trying to do this with faculty executives or representatives would mean even more code!

I hope that the above is clear enough and would really appreciate any help in minimizing the heritage program mentioned above.

Use find, exec, and cp to copy certain files while keeping the directory path

I have set up the following folders with empty text files:


I just want to copy TXT files to another directory while maintaining the directory structure. So I tried the following commands:

mkdir -p temp/s;
find ./ -name '*txt' -exec cp --parents '{}' ./temp/s ;

Now I see the following files from my current directory:


I don't understand why the last line temp/s/temp/s/2/b.txt occurred. Can someone explain why this happened and how I can correct my command temp is not nested in another temp ?

This is the bottom line that I was expecting:


Children – How do I find out if the previous flights (one airline) flew with unbooked or empty seats?

Usually airlines keep details of how full their planes are ("load factor"), ie jealous This data is not available to the public,

However, the price is a pretty good indicator of how full the flight is and this data is Available on websites like Google Flights. So if you check that the flight is always cheapest on Wednesday afternoon, chances are high that it will be empty.

All in all, airlines these days are pretty good at packing their planes to the last place The only way to be sure of getting an empty center seat is to pay for it.

Where can I find similar channels to a specific channel in telegram?

On Instagram (web version), you can use this button to display a list of suggested pages that are similar to the current page. This makes it easy to find many resources on this network.

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Is there a similar function somewhere in Telegram? I want to find channels that are similar to the current channel I am in. But I can't find how.

Find the Most Trusted and Verified Dermatologist – Everything Else

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Our team of leading and authentic skin specialists, dermatologists, cosmeticians and plastic surgeons from all over India has influenced the lives of thousands of consumers and helped them regain their self-esteem in life. They are experts when it comes to assessing consumer needs and recommending the best solutions tailored to their specific needs.

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How can I find out which tab or which website (in Google Chrome) uses a lot of memory?

Sometimes a website in Google Chrome may consume a lot of memory after a day or two (and the hard disk space objected to by MacBook is running low).

It could be a mistake if I close a certain tab and wait 2-3 minutes, then the hard drive suddenly recovers 2 GB.

Is there any way to find out which website uses so much storage space other than errors and mistakes?

(Some web pages don't appear to be harmful, but they could be analytics or the ad system where the code has a lot of memory leaks.)

(MySQL) Find the first, second, ….. nth film made by a group of directors

There is a table called "Movies". You can find the table here. (Please scroll to the bottom of the page to see the table.)

I want to find the list of the first films from each director in the list.

I wrote the following query

SELECT director, title AS first_movie, MIN(year) AS year FROM movies GROUP BY director;

I've gotten the results I want, but I'm wondering if there's a better way to do it.

Likewise, I want to find the list of the second films that were made by all the directors in the list. How do I do it?

And finally, is there a general way to get to the list of the nth film made by all the directors in the list?

Find an upper limit of a function with restrictions

To let $ a_ {j} in l bracket 0.1 r bracket $. $ z_j in (-z, z) $ Where $ z in R $. $ beta in (-t, t) $ Where $ t in R $. $ 0 <x_j leq X $ Where $ X in R ^ {+} $, Likewise $ C, b in R $,

To let $ D ( beta, x, b) = ( sum_j a_j z_j – C x_j z_j text {exp} (z_j beta + b)) ​​text {exp} ( sum_j a_j (z_j beta + b ) – C x_j text {exp} (z_j beta + b)) $

I'm trying to find a function $ F (x, b) $ that just depends $ x $ and $ b $ and no further $ beta $ so that $ mid D ( beta, x, b) mid leq F (x, b) $, The sum in $ j $ is finite. $ a_j $ is binary.

How $ beta $ One of the barriers can be used in a compact, so that the dependency in $ beta $ is gone. I have spent some time with this problem and still cannot find a solution.

Any help is greatly appreciated.