Why do France and Belgium use the AZERTY keyboard? What is the historical origin of this redundancy?

So, how did the keyboard layouts develop historically?

Did you have a look at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AZERTY#History and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QWERTY ?

In the beginning, there was not a keyboard layout. Each keyboard manufacturer. In fact, early Sholes typewriters had the keys arranged alphabetically. Trying to solve a jamming problem (and probably also based on letters frequency and users’s feedback) is how the initial QWERTY layout was born. The success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878 made this very popular.

AZERTY (just like QWERTZ or QZERTY) is basically a QWERTY variation adapted for a given language (based on the assumption that it would be better to type a given language if certain letters that are very frequent on them appear on the home row).

Why haven’t France and Belgium reformed this redundancy by using the QWERTY keyboard instead of the AZERTY keyboard?

Why should they use QWERTY? Do note that it isn’t an optimal keyboard layout, either. Why aren’t you -I assume- using QWERTY and not DVORAK?

There are lots and lots of users that learnt to type in AZERTY. There would be an high cost of changing to a different layout. Plus, there are lots and lots of physical keyboards in those places showing an AZERTY layout.

There is a cost of switching to something else. In fact, a BEPO layout would be preferable from a theorical point of view. However, it would be costly for users to retrain themselves into a different layout. And with most computers in the country using AZERTY, that would put them in a disadvantage when using a different computer. This makes them to continue using AZERTY. Just like other countries continue using QWERTY.

Note: there was recently a keyboard layout standardization by French AFNOR (NF Z71‐300), but it kept the position of AZERTY letters, see https://norme-azerty.fr/ (there was an accompanying BEPO layout, too)

[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 9h40 PM


LIVE ~ 165.22.217.135:6840 | 0.083 | Seattle | WA | 98121 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 52.9.245.203:20034 | 0.222 | Wilmington | DE | 19893 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 8.210.163.246:50036 | 0.089 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 8.210.163.246:50023 | 0.054 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 193.41.253.100:3329 | 0.285 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Germany | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 23.106.35.130:1452 | 0.2 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 109.236.91.168:54321 | 0.183 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Netherlands | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 13.112.216.66:20006 | 0.141 | Norwalk | CT | 06850 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 178.32.213.127:50098 | 0.217 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | France | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 23.106.35.130:47658 | 0.194 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 59.30.100.149:2080 | 0.103 | Seoul | 11 | Unknown | Korea, Republic of | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 192.252.209.155:14455 | 0.324 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 103.109.58.81:5678 | 0.173 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 59.30.100.141:2080 | 0.152 | Seoul | 11 | Unknown | Korea, Republic of | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 23.106.35.130:50188 | 0.214 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 59.30.100.153:2080 | 0.092 | Seoul | 11 | Unknown | Korea, Republic of | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 59.30.100.200:2080 | 0.091 | Seoul | 11 | Unknown | Korea, Republic of | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 165.22.217.135:18683 | 0.08 | Seattle | WA | 98121 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net


FireHeaven
Reviewed by FireHeaven on
.
[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 9h40 PM
LIVE ~ 165.22.217.135:6840 | 0.083 | Seattle | WA | 98121 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 52.9.245.203:20034 | 0.222 | Wilmington | DE | 19893 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 8.210.163.246:50036 | 0.089 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 8.210.163.246:50023 | 0.054 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 193.41.253.100:3329 | 0.285 | Unknown |

Rating: 5



.

driving – Travel back to France from Spain in order to complete French Residency

we must go back to our primary house in France in order to complete our French Residency there. We are both UK passport holders but live permanently in France. Having tried both French and Spanish Consul contacts we have not been able to get a definitive answer. Our Question is; other than the covid neg test, what requirements must we meet to travel back to France? Is there restrictions on when travel is not allowed? i.e. night curfews and , if so, is there documentation in being that, allows exemption in order to complete the journey quickly at one go, thereby reducing possibly contact with others. If such documentation exists where can we get it

[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 11h55 AM


LIVE ~ 59.30.100.101:2080 | 0.081 | Seoul | 11 | Unknown | Korea, Republic of | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 103.109.58.81:5678 | 0.129 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 165.22.220.151:59201 | 0.086 | Seattle | WA | 98121 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 165.22.220.151:34610 | 0.083 | Seattle | WA | 98121 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 59.30.100.200:2080 | 0.078 | Seoul | 11 | Unknown | Korea, Republic of | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 212.83.130.32:31725 | 0.192 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | France | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 37.187.190.181:59837 | 0.212 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Austria | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 165.22.43.8:13178 | 0.302 | Seattle | WA | 98121 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 165.22.217.135:18683 | 0.1 | Seattle | WA | 98121 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 188.227.224.110:9051 | 0.279 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Hungary | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 23.106.35.130:50188 | 0.208 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 165.227.174.249:33080 | 0.199 | Santa Cruz | CA | 95060 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 165.22.43.8:30081 | 0.321 | Seattle | WA | 98121 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 59.30.100.141:2080 | 0.092 | Seoul | 11 | Unknown | Korea, Republic of | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 188.166.34.137:9000 | 0.223 | Saint Petersburg | 66 | Unknown | Russian Federation | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 95.0.219.197:1082 | 0.274 | Istanbul | 34 | Unknown | Turkey | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 186.126.237.7:9999 | 0.46 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Argentina | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 192.252.215.5:16137 | 0.289 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Checked at vn5socks.net


FireHeaven
Reviewed by FireHeaven on
.
[Vn5socks.net] Auto update 24/7 – Good socks 11h55 AM
LIVE ~ 59.30.100.101:2080 | 0.081 | Seoul | 11 | Unknown | Korea, Republic of | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 103.109.58.81:5678 | 0.129 | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 165.22.220.151:59201 | 0.086 | Seattle | WA | 98121 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 165.22.220.151:34610 | 0.083 | Seattle | WA | 98121 | United States | Checked at vn5socks.net
LIVE ~ 59.30.100.200:2080 | 0.078 | Seoul | 11 | Unknown |

Rating: 5



.

france – Unable to book performance in May at Paris Opera?

OK, I did get an answer from the email address listed on their Facebook page resa.internet@operadeparis.fr, even though this address was not listed on their homepage:

Dear Sir/Madam,

You would like to book tickets for the performance of Tosca on May, 10th 2021.

We inform you that in application of government directives, reservations are currently suspended.

All the information concerning the shows scheduled from February to July 2021 will soon be detailed on our website operadeparis.fr and our mobile application.

We thank you for your understanding.

Best regards,

Anaïs – Chargée des relations avec le public

Direction de l’Expérience Spectateur & Marketing

Opéra national de Paris

Opéra Bastille – 120 rue de Lyon – 75012 Paris

iKoula Debuts with Dedi Servers From €15/month in France!

Hey there, iKoula!

This is their first appearance on LowEndBox so please give them a LowEndWelcome.  They’re starting out their journey with a special offer:

  • Between February 8 and February 12, 2021, they’re offering 50% off recurring on their dedicated servers with coupon code IKLET50!
  • Prices as low as an e3 for €15/month!
  • All dedis feature unlimited transfer!

Wowzers kazowers!  That’s great.  Their sale stretches all the way from a modest i3 up to a beefy 64GB e5 with twin drives.  If you want a dedi in Europe, now’s the time to jump in!

They are registered in France (417680618). Their Terms of Service is available on their web site. They accept PayPal, American Express, Master Card, VISA, Bank Transfer, Alipay.

Here’s a little about iKoula in their own words:

IKOULA is a specialist of web hosting, dedicated servers and cloud computing since February 1998. We own 2 Data Centers in France (Reims and Eppes), plus 2 business units in Nederland and Spain. Our solution “CloudIKOULAONE” is available in 3 continents (Europe, Asia and USA). Our teams are fluent in more than 10 different languages and available 24/7 in order to help you in your projects.

Remember that the LEB community would love to hear about your experience in the comments section below!

Now read more to see the offers!

Agile S

  • 8GB RAM
  • Intel® Xeon® E3 1220v5
  • 1TB hard drives
  • unlimited transfer
  • 1Gbps uplink
  • IPv4 1
  • IPMI: NO
  • Coupon: IKLET50
  • €15/month
  • (ORDER)

Agile S i3

  • 8GB RAM
  • Intel® Core i3 8100
  • 1TB hard drives
  • unlimited transfer
  • 1Gbps uplink
  • IPv4 1
  • IPMI: NO
  • Coupon: IKLET50
  • €17.5/month
  • (ORDER)

Agile M

  • 8GB RAM
  • Intel® Xeon® E3 1230v5
  • 1TB hard drives
  • unlimited transfer
  • 1Gbps uplink
  • IPv4 1
  • IPMI: NO
  • Coupon: IKLET50
  • €21.5/month
  • (ORDER)

Agile L

  • 8GB RAM
  • Intel® Xeon® E3 1230v5
  • 2 X1TB hard drives
  • unlimited transfer
  • 1Gbps uplink
  • IPv4 1
  • IPMI: NO
  • Coupon: IKLET50
  • €30/month
  • (ORDER)

Power M

  • 32GB RAM
  • Intel® Xeon® E5 1620v2
  • 2 X2 TB hard drives
  • unlimited transfer
  • 1Gbps uplink
  • IPv4 1
  • IPMI: NO
  • Coupon: IKLET50
  • €37.5/month
  • (ORDER)

Power L

  • 64GB RAM
  • Intel® Xeon® E5 1650v2
  • 2 X2 TB hard drives
  • unlimited transfer
  • 1Gbps uplink
  • IPv4 1
  • IPMI: NO
  • Coupon: IKLET50
  • €55/month
  • (ORDER)

Classic Power M

  • 8GB RAM
  • Intel® Xeon® Quad Core 3440 HT
  • 2 X 1 TB hard drives
  • unlimited transfer
  • 1Gbps uplink
  • IPv4 1
  • IPMI: NO
  • Coupon: IKLET50
  • €16/month
  • (ORDER)

NETWORK INFO:

  • Datacenter Name – ikdc1 (Reims, France)
  • Test IPv4: 178.170.68.42
  • Test IPv6: 2a00:c70:1:178:170:68:42:1
  • Test file:
  • Looking glass: http://lg.ikdc1.ikoula.com/

Please let us know if you have any questions/comments and enjoy!

raindog308

I’m Andrew, techno polymath and long-time LowEndTalk community Moderator. My technical interests include all things Unix, perl, python, shell scripting, and relational database systems. I enjoy writing technical articles here on LowEndBox to help people get more out of their VPSes.