A question about full knots, light knots and Merkle trees

I suspect you mistake roots for roots and trees.

A Merkle tree is the binary tree of hashes. The leaves are individual transactions that are hashed, and then the hashes are hashed together until only one hash remains. The remaining hash is the Merkle root. A Merkle branch is a particular path along the Merkle tree from the Merkle root to a transaction.

Full nodes store the Merkle root as it is part of the block header. The block header contains the Merkle root, so the block hash itself is also committed to the transactions contained in the block. While the Merkle root is used only for the initial block validation, it is recommended that you completely store the received data structures so that the block header is completely stored.

By storing the complete block header, the block headers are preserved if the transactions themselves are discarded on cleanup, and the header chain is still tracked. Without the transactions, it would not be possible to re-verify this header chain if the Merkle root were not saved.

Full nodes do not store the entire Merkle tree or any Merkle branches. These are not required for normal operation. When an SPV client asks for a Merkle branch, it is calculated on the fly.

Plan full, differential, and transnational backups in sql Server 2016

I've been thinking about scheduling backups with the SQL Server Agent and maintenance plans (leading to the SQL Server Agent).

My first concern is how to plan my backups best.

I want a full backup daily, a differential backup every hour, and a transnational log backup every 15 minutes. My second concern: is this a good practice?

There was a problem using the SQL Server Agent. Overwrites my full and differential backup. I agree with overwriting the full backup, but not the differential, because if I need to restore it, I would only have a differential backup, which is not the purpose of differential backups. How can I prevent the overwriting of previous backups?

The last concern and question concerns the way to implement the backup plan. I use maintenance plans and may plan three different backups. One for full, one for differential and one for transnational. Is this the best practice for a database that is used daily by users (at least 2000 transactions per day)?

boot – Slow boot in Ubuntu 19.04 with full disk encryption

I have a 960 GB SSD (Kingston A400) installed on my laptop (Asus X505BA). I installed Ubuntu 19.04 with full disk encryption. I also enabled Fastboot and SecureBoot in the UEFI settings. My problem is that the system key is very slow at boot time. It usually takes 4 to 5 minutes, which is too much compared to the startup time I used to have with an unencrypted hard drive in the same laptop (usually 1 minute or less).

What can I do to improve this?

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