Beginners – DSL for makefile generation for dotfiles using symlinks

While I was investigating in my chatter, I was looking for a replacement for handmade POSIXdo-compatible makefiles for managing my point files (using symlinks). I decided it would be easiest to roll my own.

Requirement:

  • written in a language that is probably immediately available on the main platforms (I chose Perl)
  • No further external dependencies (installation for dotfiles should be a clone-and-run process)
  • can live alongside / as a submodule of a Dotfiles repository

For that I developed Plink. I quote the specification from the README and leave it out of the POD in my Perl code. Full details at the above link, including test code.

The Plink Module offers an implementation of the Plink language, a DSL
Created to describe point files via symlinks. The language is a strict superset of
make (1); Implementations create (POSIX) makefiles for use. It is important
Note that Plink only guarantees that the generated code is POSIX-compatible.
User-written code may use GNU make or other non-portable functions. What follows
is the canonical specification of the plink language.

Plink specification

Plink is a superset of POSIX make. It defines four (4) new syntaxes with semantics
Meaning.

Plink also defines a header and footer.

A compliant implementation transforms the input file (or STDIN) as specified by
the syntax. All lines that are not involved in any of these syntaxes
to # Comments are copied verbatim (including blank lines). The issue is
written to a file named by the environment variable PLINK_OUTPUT, or
Makefile if not set.

See t / test.plink for an example plink file and t / expected.mk for his
Output.

Square brackets [ prerequisites ]

Any line like

destination name [ prerequisites ] ...

will be transformed into

Destination Name: $ MAKEFILE Requirements ...

$ MAKEFILE refers to the name of the generated file name. The rooms around
[] are not requiredbut often recommended. ... can make use of everyone
Pop syntaxes.

Bang and Double Bang ! !!

Like lines

Aim! commands

will be transformed into

Aim:
commands

The list commands lasts until the end of the line. commands is indented
to make a tab as it requires make.

Like also lines

Aim !!
commands
on more lines
!!

become

Aim:
commands
on more lines

The list commands lasts until the line contains exactly !!, commands
is indented.

Symlink (fat arrow) <=

The meat of the DSL. Like lines

link_in_home <= dotfile_under_ $ (LINKS)

Be part of a mapping. The output creates dependencies of the form

$ (HOME) / link_in_home: $ (LINKS) dotfile_under _ $ (LINKS)

for every fat arrow, and also gives everyone the recipe

if test -e $ @; then rm -rf $ @; fi
ln -s $$ (realpath $?) $ @
@echo $ @ & # 39; -> & # 39; $$(realpath $?)

that creates the connection. Finally a destination called symlink what is provided is what is meant
depends on all this link_in_homeprovided that it is considered a public API
for every make target that depends on the generation of symlinks.

Dotfiles are files under the make macro $ (LEFT), Due to the generation rule
if $ (LEFT) is not set, the current directory is used. This can be useful to
Place all the point files in a directory named, eg. Points, Then you want
Insert a line into your plink file

LEFT = points /

(Note the final slash).

The use of the macro symlinks is considered a plink implementation detail and
is subject to change Users who set symlinks or depending on how it works
call undefined behavior.

header

The plink header consists of

SHELL = / bin / sh
.SUFFIXES:

footer

The plink footer consists of the symlink target implementation and the
following:

MAKEFILE: INPUT
$$ (realpath $?)

MAKE FILE refers to the generated output and ENTRANCE to the used plink file
as input.

plink $ infname. $ outfname

Implements the plink specification and transforms the specified file infname to
outfname, Handles for STDIN and STDOUT are accepted, though STDIN has that
Side effect of the makefile rules now depending on the literal file STDIN,
Likewise, STDOUT breaks the rule to create the generated makefile.

#! / usr / bin / env perl

Package Plink v1.0.0;

use v5.10;
Use strict;
use warnings;
use carie;

use open & # 39 ;: locale & # 39 ;;
# implicitly with
# use v5.10;
use the function & # 39; unicode_strings & # 39 ;;

use exporter & # 39; import & # 39 ;;
our @EXPORT_OK = qw (plink);

main () except caller (0);

Secondary cover {
my $ string = shift;
$ string = ~ s / ^  s + |  s + $ // g;
return $ string;
}

sub process_deps {
my ($ line, $ outfname) = @_;
Return $ line if $ line = ~ / ^ # /;
my ($ target, $ deps, $ rest) = $ line = ~ m {^
(. +) # Destination
[(.*)]    # Dependencies
(.*)        # anything else
$} x;
return $ line, except $ target;
crop $ target = $ target;
trim $ rest = $ rest;
my @deps = grep (! / ^  s * $ /, map {trim $ _} (split /  s + /, $ deps));
return "$ target: $ outfname @deps $ rest  n";
}

sub process_bang {
my ($ line, $ outfname) = @_;
$ line = process_deps ($ line, $ outfname);
my ($ target, $ rest) = $ line = ~ m {^
([^!]+) # Destination
! # Bang
([^!]+) # Rest
$} x;
return unless $ target;
trim $ rest = $ rest;
crop $ target = $ target;
Unless ($ target = ~ /: /) {
$ target = "$ target:"
}
return << TARGET;
$ target
 r $ rest
AIM
}

sub print_header {
my $ out = move;
print $ out << HEADER;
SHELL = / bin / sh
.SUFFIXES:

HEADER
}

sub print_footer {
my ($ out, $ outfname, $ infname) = @_;
print $ out << FOOTER;
# symlink: Ensures that symlinks are created
Symlink: $ outfname  $ (SYMLINKS)

 $ (SYMLINKS):
 tif test -e  $@; then rm -rf  $ @; fi
 tln -s  $ $ (realpath  $?)  $ @
 t  @echo  $@? -> & # 39;  $  $(realpath  $?)

$ outfname: $ infname
 t $  $(realpath  $?)
FOOTER
}

Subprocess Lines {
my ($ in, $ out, $ outfname) = @_;
my% left;

while (my $ line = <$in>) {
next if ($ line = ~ m / ^ #! | ^ !! $ /);
# Skip comments, no preprocessing
if ($ line = ~ m / ^ # /) {
print $ out $ line;
}
# !!
elsif ($ line = ~ m / !! /) {
(my $ target = process_deps ($ line, $ outfname)) = ~ s / !!  s * $ //;
crop $ target = $ target;
Unless ($ target = ~ /: /) {
$ target = "$ target:"
}
print $ out "$ target  n";
while (my $ sub_line = <$in>) {
last if $ sub_line = ~ / !! /;
print $ out " t $ sub_line";
}
}
#!
elsif ($ line = ~ m /! /) {
print $ out process_bang ($ line, $ outfname);
}
# <=
elsif ($ line = ~ m / <= /) {
my ($ link, $ dotfile) = map {trim $ _} split / <= /, $ line;
$ left {$ link} = $ dotfile;
}
otherwise {
print $ out process_deps ($ line, $ outfname);
}
}

return% left;
}

sub print_links {
my ($ out,% left) = @_;
print $ out "SYMLINKS = \ n";
#print% left
for my $ link (sorting key% left) {
print $ out " $ (HOME) / $ link \ n";
}
print $ out " n  n";

for my $ link (sorting key% left) {
spend $ " $ (HOME) / $ link:  $(LEFT) $ left {$ link}  n ";
}
print $ out " n";
}

sub get_in {
my $ infname = shift;
if ($ infname eq  * STDIN) {
return ($ infname, & # 39; STDIN & # 39;);
}
otherwise {
open (my $ in, & # 39;<', $infname);
        return ($in, $infname);
    }
}

sub get_out {
    my $outfname = shift;
    if ($outfname eq *STDOUT) {
        return ($outfname, 'STDOUT');
    }
    else {
        open(my $out, '>& # 39 ;, $ outfname);
return ($ out, $ outfname);
}
}

Subplot {
my ($ infname, $ outfname) = @_;
my ($ in, $ out);
($ in, $ infname) = get_in $ infname;
($ out, $ outfname) = get_out $ outfname;

print_header $ out;
my% left = process_lines $ in, $ out, $ outfname;
print_links $ out,% left;
print_footer $ out, $ outfname, $ infname;

close ($ out);
close ($ in);
}

sub main {
my $ output = $ ENV {PLINK_OUTPUT} // & makefile & # 39 ;;
my $ input = shift @ARGV //  * STDIN;
plink $ input, $ output;
}

# return true
1;
`` `

Address generation – Procedure for deriving payment addresses

I'm trying to understand the process for deriving HD wallet payments. So suppose:

  • Own a Bitcoin HD Wallet on an external Smart Device
  • Extensive public key at the account level (xpub ….) exported from the first account.
  • Derivation Path "m / 44" / 0 "/ 0" / 0/0 "

How to proceed step by step to derive a valid Bitcoin payment address that can be confirmed with the external wallet?

The process according to BIP32 – Child Key Derivation (CKD) functions seems simple and straightforward enough that it can be written in any programming language with two processes as a single function: Base58 and HMAC-SHA512 are such standard functions that I do not consider necessary to complete the derivation, install a platform tool and a bloated spaghetti code library.

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python – New in Programming – Creating a Random Element Generation System for Use in a Later Roguelike

This is not bad code for someone learning the language, but I would change a few things:

Above you have:

i_quality = ["Good", "Bad"]
i_quality = random.choice (i_quality)

And other such lines. The main problem here is overwriting i_quality, What if you want to generate a second quality later? You have overwritten your main quality list. Do you have them as separate variables:

all_qualities = ["Good", "Bad"]
all_bases = ["Sword", "Gun"]
all_elements = ["Fire", "Water"]

i_quality = random.choice (all_qualities)
i_base = random.choice (all_bases)
i_element = random.choice (all_elements)

Pay attention to how you name things and what responsibilities the functions have. create_Item create one itemsbut it prints it out and then throws it away. Such a feature is not very useful. The caller could have just called items Constructor itself and then print the object if they wanted. Their function makes some formatting, but that is better in the __str__ Method of items,

What would be a useful factory function would be a create_random_item Function. If I take all this together, I would change that code into something closer to:

import randomly

all_qualities = ["Good", "Bad"]
all_bases = ["Sword", "Gun"]
all_elements = ["Fire", "Water"]

Class Item (Object):
def __init__ (self, quality, basis, element):
Self-quality = quality
self.base = base
self.element = element

# What Python calls, if you ask
# show an item with str
def __str __ (self):
Return self.quality + "" + self.base + "from" + self.element

def create_random_item ():
quality = random.choice (all_qualities)
base = random.choice (all_bases)
element = random.choice (all_elements)

Return article (quality, basis, element)

for _ in range (10): # We create 10 random weapons and print them out
item = create_random_item ()
print (str (item)) # str calls the __str__ of the item

Good firearm
Good sword of fire
Bad sword of the water
Good sword of fire
Good sword of water
Good sword of fire
Bad gun of the water
Bad sword of the water
Bad gun of the water
Bad sword of the water

  • However, this could be further improved. Each time you have a closed group of members of a group (for example, how "fire" and "water" are members of the "members" group), you should probably use a bulleted list. In many cases, they help prevent errors and allow IDEs to help you with autocomplete names.

  • in the __str__You can also use f-strings to avoid having to manually restrict usage +, It would be better to write:

    def __str __ (self):
    return f "{self.quality} {self.base} from {self.element}"
    

    This results in a much lower noise level and allows you to focus more on what you printed instead of opening and closing quotation marks and +s.

  • For reasons of context create_random_item can be more useful as a static method. This makes it clearer which class it is assigned to, as you would then call the method as follows:

    Item.create_random_item ()
    

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hd wallet – Bitcoin address generation and UTXO scan

I am developing a Bitcoin payment application.

I have two questions to ask:

  1. How much UTXO should each address in each bip32 address consider to avoid reuse of the address? For example, if address A is used twice, should I generate a new address, or does it have a fixed number to reuse the address before generating a new one?
  2. If a new address is generated, I understand that for each address derivation path, the following address must be scanned to determine if each index has a fund or not:
    • heritage
    • Segwit
    • Change the address for Legacy
    • Change the address for Segwit

What's the best way to scan addresses without sending so many requests (for each index) to Blockchain Explorer to scan funds?

Thank you in advance.

What are the advantages / disadvantages of JSON serialization with code generation on a front-end app with client interface?

If I have a backend of HTTP services that send JSON and want to create a client-side application that uses those services, what are the disadvantages of using JSON serialization?

With JSON serialization, I mean converting JSON string data into defined classes that are the same for both the server app and the client apps in the code language.

In most code languages ​​like Javascript you can use a method like JSON.parse (myData); and you get an object or array of dynamic data.
If you use ECMAScript 2015, Typescript, Dart, or other type-safe languages, you can convert or create classes from that data.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of creating classes over dynamic objects?

Possible concerns:

  • Pair server and client too closely
  • Maintain synchronization between server and client
  • performance

Possible advantages:

  • Automatically complete IDE
  • Type safety
  • Code as documentation

Blockchain – confusion between chickens and eggs over bitcoin generation

A valid Bitcoin block must contain at least one transaction. This is the Coinbase transaction where the block reward is paid out. Most early Bitcoin blocks did not contain transactions that sent bitcoins from one party to another, but only the Coinbase transaction used to pay out the re-stamped bitcoins.

In fact, the first transaction involving the exchange of coins was in block 9 when Satoshi sent 10 BTC to Hal Finney

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