There are a couple of implied assumptions in the scenario you’ve presented that, if thoroughly examined, will make your decision easier.
1 The data is tabular.
Just because you are returning records from a query and by default displaying them in a table, does not make the data “tabular” from a UI perspective. The key is that the primary function of tabular display is to compare multiple set items by one or more item characteristics. Think analysis of data. Grouping and sorting in tables are convenience options that make the analysis of the data easier to achieve using a single table, but are still secondary to the primary function of comparison.
Lists are usually better suited to displaying a set of data for the purpose of locating one or more items of interest based on a few key characteristics. Sorting and grouping a list of data facilitates bubbling items of interest to the top of the list for improved “findability”. Ordered lists imply sorting by one or more characteristics, and grouping is achieved by multiple sequential lists or sub-lists.
In my opinion, based on a cursory look at the data you linked, you may want to question whether the occasion of use for your data is more comparing or finding.
2 The mobile use case is fundamentally the same as the desktop use case
This is the big question that underlies the decision to “go responsive” only. Responsive design primarily addresses displaying (mostly) the same information on different screen sizes. In some situations, the mobile use case (context, user goals, info needs) is different enough from the desktop need that a responsive solution forces an unacceptable level compromise for one (or more) sets of users. When this happens, a distinct mobile solution is a better option.
In your case, I would decide first if the use cases are the same, or whether designing distinct experiences is a better fit. If they are the same, then examine the use case of the “tabular” data. If it’s primarily finding item(s), then go with a list based solution and employ sorting/grouping options and potentially collapse/expand list items (perhaps only on mobile) if it helps focus attention on the characteristics of primary interest.
If the use cases are the same, and comparison of multiple items by characteristic(s) is the primary purpose of the data display, then collapsing the table down to fit 320px by removing or hiding data is actually worse for the user than zooming and/or scrolling horizontally over the complete table. In this scenario, fully responsive design is not appropriate.
Sorry for the long-winded response – hope this helps you make a choice.