Am I right when I observe that lenses have no names …?
No.Lenses have names, multiple names such as model numbers and FCC IDs. Manufacturers need to be able to track what they manufacture and sell. Some manufacturers also give their lenses marketing names.
Since model numbers often do not contain information that consumers need to decide whether to buy a lens, the specifications themselves also serve as a (general) name. Most manufacturers have only one electricity Lens model with a specific set of specifications. Consumers can refer to lenses with abbreviated names like "Nikon 18-55mm" and there is usually only one current fitting model. More information is needed when looking at used lenses, but it's not that difficult. If you don't remember whether you want the v1 or v2 lens, it probably doesn't matter. If it matters, write it down, bookmark the review, or ask Google.
… when I search for a new lens, I can never find a model number.
Whether you can find the model number is a different question than whether it exists. Some manufacturers' model numbers may only be used for internal use (not well known).
A quick search on the Nikon website shows that the model number for one of the Nikon kit lenses listed above is: AFS18-55_3.5-5.6GVRII_NT (7C_DL). Note that it is similar to the common name, with no spaces or units. By learning the common name, you effectively use the model number.
… it must have an advantage to use descriptions for lenses.
Common names (what you call descriptions) are easier to remember than any model number. People are also usually more interested in the specifications that determine how the product is used. Assume that a company would introduce Elijah and Elisha lenses. Are you going to buy them based on their names? Wouldn't you be interested in the technical data? Someone looking for a 35mm lens can safely skip reviews of 85mm lenses.
I heard that lenses used to have names, but it got confusing.
Marketing names are confusing. For example, what are the differences between Pancolar, Planar, Sonnar, Biotar, Biometar, Minitar, Lomogon, Xenon, Xenar, Hexanon, Hexar, Rokkor, Celtic, …? What if I told you that these names more or less, refer to 50 mm lenses for different camera systems? If you only have one camera system, just knowing that you want 50 / 1.8 is enough to get the right one.
Oops, two of these lenses are 32mm … that's the foolishness to rely on that kind of name. They remember the name, but still get the wrong lens.
You need to know either the bracket or the bezel to distinguish them.
It's not too much to expect people to know which mount they need for their camera. At least most people know which camera they are using. Most sellers can use this information to determine delivery.
Can someone explain the difference between lenses and other consumer electronics?
Marketing names don't tell people about how the product is used. For products such as cars, televisions, and cameras, usage is determined by the product type. However, the use of lenses is subject to certain specifications. If you need a certain field of view, you need to find lenses with certain focal lengths. If you want to shoot in a 1: 1 ratio, you need a macro lens. Fancy names do not convey this information.