hard drive – Why hasn’t anyone invented spanning/merging 2 partitions from same disk with different file allocation sizes to utilize wasted disk space?

In the following scenario (for demonstration purposes), a disk must contain 500,000 tiny files (each exactly 2 kilobytes), and 500,000 large files (each 32 megabytes), totaling altogether 16.001 terabytes:

Let’s pretend the chosen file-system is exFAT (which supports an Allocation Unit Size between roughly 2 kilobytes – 32.768 megabytes).

If the disk is formatted with an Allocation Unit Size of 2 kilobytes (smallest exFAT option), it unfortunately reduces I/O performance of larger files.

If the disk is formatted with an AUS of 32 megabytes (largest exFAT option), this ends up wasting tons of space since each tiny file wastes 31.999 megabytes per file; all million files waste about ~32 terabytes of wasted space.

Why hasn’t any manufacturer designed a disk (or some firmware) that partitions a disk into 2 partitions, each with a different AUS (one with the smallest, one with the biggest)? Then, this disk can automatically manage (without OS intervention) file changes, keeping larger files in one partition, and smaller files in the other? Both partitions could look like a single drive, or spanned drive? Or is this basically the concept of compressing files into a .zip?

This could be simulated with a massive .iso disk image, or VHD residing on a disk formatted at the highest AUS level. The large files can reside in the disk, while small files can reside in the virtual disk image. Many OSes can mount the disk, with this disk being formatted with the smallest AUS.

What are some technical setbacks, or explanations why this wasn’t done?

Algorithms – How do I get a patent / copyright for the puzzle I invented?

I invented a new puzzle game that I can play on paper.

However, I want to create a mobile app / web app so other users can play games like the following.

Example: Three, 2048

Since I'm not a good UI developer myself, I've considered contacting another UI developer. But if I tell them the idea behind my game, they can ignore me and start the game themselves.

How can I be copyrighted for the puzzle I invented?

If the platform for asking this question is wrong, please let me know where I can ask this question.

dslr – How did the photography work before autofocus was invented?

How did the photograph work before autofocus was invented?

Pretty good for those who want to learn how to do it with the tools we had at the time. The same is true now. The only difference is that we now need to learn how to tell an AF system to focus on the part of the frame we want to focus on.

Probably all used the manual focus. But here is the thing: I tried to focus my DSLR manually. It is absurdly difficult. Given the tiny size of the image in the viewfinder, I have no idea how you would ever get a picture with an impeccable focus.

Due to the ubiquity of AF in most modern cameras, the focus aids that were once included in what a photographer saw through the viewfinder are usually no longer there. Split prisms and / or prismatic-collar micro-screens were common in SLR cameras before AF occurred. Some cameras had one or the other. Many cameras had both. Other camera types often include a Parallax rangefinder focusing aid.

Viewfinders were generally larger and brighter, even with consumer cameras. Now, only the top professional models usually have large, bright viewfinders that were more common in the pre-AF era.

Lenses were also developed to allow for finer gradations of focus adjustment. The focus rings of the lenses had to be rotated much farther to achieve the same change in focal position, which now results from a very small movement with current lenses.

Or maybe people did not do it? Maybe the focus was not so critical before 24-megapixel images were enlarged to fit on the side of a bus? Surely, when you print something the size of a postcard, focus errors will be much less noticeable.

It's a fact that casual photos are photos that are mostly photos. However, there were (and are) large and medium format photographers who made great efforts to create manually focused images suitable for very large size display.

Some of the boundaries of the sharpest focus were imposed by the recording medium. Part of the problem with roll films is that they do not like to sit flat in the camera. This is similar to the problem you will have if you ever try to focus a projector perfectly on a flexible, portable screen that can flutter in the wind. There were some advanced cameras that actually used a kind of vacuum to make the film flatter against the back plate.

Focusing with the color film was also limited by the different depths of the three color layers in the film. If you were perfectly focused on one color, the other two levels were a bit blurry.

In contrast, digital sensors are so nearly completely flat that we now have to coat the backs of the lens elements to prevent unwanted reflections from bouncing off the layers of the sensor stack. The theoretical limits of the best focus are now much smaller. Even with newer and much sharper lenses available today, the limiting factor in high resolution systems quickly becomes the resolving power of the lens rather than the resolving power and flatness of the recording medium.

Also, my very first camera was a Fisher-Price toy camera. (Movie, of course.) I'm pretty sure there were no focussing regulators at all. (And that was way too long ago that autofocus existed.) How does it work? Is the lens just permanently focused on infinity or something?

Fixed focus cameras use relatively narrow apertures at relatively short focal lengths. This gives a great depth of field. The focus is set on the hyperfocal distance of the system so that everything from half of that distance to infinity seems to be in focus. Cameras with this type of design can still be found. Among them are some (but by no means all) webcams, cell phone cameras, reversing cameras and other surveillance cameras (although they are not as many cell phone cameras as they were a few years ago).

Some cameras could not see through the lens before shooting. A fugitive viewfinder was at the side of the camera or, if you had a deluxe model, the front standard that held the lens. With such viewfinders no adjustments were made for lenses of different focal lengths. The photographer just needed to know how far the viewing angle was for the lens used. The focus was adjusted by estimating or measuring the subject distance and aligning a mark on the lens with a scale of that distance. Aperture and shutter speed were also set manually without any exposure metering in the camera. Some of these cameras used roll films with 6-12 shots per roll. Other films used, which had to be changed after each exposure. The latest versions of such press cameras were used in my hometown in the early 1970s by local press photographers.


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This post has been edited by Chaser1: Yesterday, 23:06

Interaction design – Who invented the gestures "Wipe on …"?

They were invented by Apple, here you can see the patent here

US Pat. No. 8059101 B2


Systems, methods and devices for interpreting manual swipe gestures as input in conjunction with touch-sensitive users
Interfaces incorporating virtual keyboards are disclosed herein. These
Allow a user to enter text using the virtual keyboard
use certain functions Swipe over the key area instead of tapping
certain keys. For example, to the left, right, up and
Swiping down can be used to insert spaces,
Move (as in capital letters) and insert a car
Return and / or new line. Various other illustrations are also described. The
The described techniques can be used in conjunction with a variety of methods
Devices, including portable devices that contain a touch screen
Interfaces such as desktop computer, tablet computer, notebook
Computers, handheld computers, personal digital assistants, media
Players, mobile phones and combinations thereof.

They also had the following related patents before the above-mentioned specific Swipe patent:

The patent issued by Apple contains a large number of important ones

The patent granted by Apple relates to the following US patents and
Patent applications, which are hereby incorporated by reference
in their entirety: US Pat. No. 6,323,846 entitled "Method and Apparatus"
for Integrating Manual Input, issued November 27, 2001; US Patent
Application Ser. No. 10 / 840,862 entitled "Multipoint Touchscreen"
issued on May 6, 2004; Preliminary US patent application no.
60 / 804,361, entitled "Touchscreen Liquid Crystal Display", filed in June.
9, 2006; Preliminary US Patent Application No. 60 / 883,979 entitled
"Touchscreen Liquid Crystal Display" filed January 8, 2007; US Patent
Application Ser. No. 11 / 367,749 entitled "Multifunctional handset"
Device ", filed March 3, 2006; US Patent Application Ser.
11 / 228,737 entitled "Activating Virtual Buttons of a Virtual Touch Screen
Keyboard, filed September 16, 2005; U.S. Patent Application Serial No.
11 / 228,700 entitled "Operating a Computer with a Touchscreen
Interface, filed on September 16, 2005; U.S. Patent No. 6,677,932 entitled
Msgstr "System and method for detecting touch under limited tactility
Feedback Conditions, issued January 13, 2004, and U.S. Pat.
6,570,557 entitled "Multi-Touch System and Method for Emulating
Modifier Keys Via Fingertip Chords ", published May 27, 2003.

However, there were companies that even used wiping gestures before Apple, even patented at that time, such as the Swedish company Neonode, which in 2002 patented the wiping patent for unlocking the gesture Patent here