Partitioning – Very slow start after cloning the system to a larger hard drive

I installed Lubuntu 18.04 LTS i386 on an SD card of an Intel Classmate PC laptop.

I recently cloned the 16 GB card to a 64 GB card using Win32DiskImager and resized it using GParted LiveUSB.

The start is now absurdly slow and I looked around and tried all the solutions, but it seems that the problem is somewhere in GRUB, but I'm a bit new to Linux, so I don't know how to identify it here.

I disabled splash to see the kernel boot messages, and found that the grub boot stops exactly 2 minutes (120 seconds) before the kernel loads (with a blank screen, no cursor), indicating a Art indicates timeout event. but I don't know where to start looking for the cause behind it.

So far I've tried solutions to other similar questions:

  • /etc/fstab shows the correct UUID for the volume (match) blkid a)
  • blockdev --getalignoff /dev/sdb1 shows 0
  • swap is a file, not a partition
  • /etc/crypttab does not exist
  • /etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d is epmty
  • I ran update-grub
  • I ran update-initramfs -uk all
  • systemd-analyze does not take into account the total boot time
  • dmesg shows nothing interesting, since boat reports are only shown after 2 minutes Grub Limbo

It looks like the booth is somewhere in Grub. I checked that /boot/grub/grub.cfg shows the UUID comparison blkid one everywhere. /var/boot.log is empty journalctl -b starts at the same point dmesg does (after 2 minutes)

I would be very happy to receive ideas on where I could start to identify the problem!

Applications – Cannot submit a form with larger files attached

I have a form on my website where you can attach your photo at the end and then click the SEND button. If you use a normal PC (e.g. notebook), everything is fine. But unfortunately most people use smartphones these days and then there is a problem. Housewives have no idea what a file size is, and they have no idea how to reduce it in a photo editor app. They don't care … they just buy new phones with built-in 12-15 megapixel cameras and shoot. If you send the online form with your Android smartphone and attach a photo of 3.5 MB, for example, everything is fine. But if a photo, say, 5.2MB, then there is an Android error message (with an Android "robot" in it) ERR_FAIL or something like that. I contacted my mobile career and they said that they have no particular restrictions on the size of files to send. The employees of the phone (Philips) also told me that the phone itself has no such limit values. Then it has to be an Android problem or … a mobile Android browser. According to iOS (Apple) … I honestly don't know … I personally don't have such a phone and not many people in our country use it (probably too expensive ???) …
My phone is Philips S257 (if it makes a difference). It runs on Android 7.0, but I think it doesn't matter since other people with other phones have had the same problem. It's just easier for me to check it on my own device.
Any ideas?

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Why are assets (images) reported as 28 times larger in Unity Build?

I am trying to reduce a Unity WebGL build size that is currently 30 MB for the data asset. I installed the Build Report Inspector. When you click the Source Assets tab and select Size, the top entries are displayed as images. Fine. However, all sizes listed were between 4 times and 30 times the size of the file on the hard disk. Is this just a build reporter bug / artifact or a real issue I need to address to reduce build sizes?

  • To edit *
    Interestingly, one of the files is a text file, and the size specified by the Unity Build report is the same as that on disk …?

Large image sizes in the build report

panorama – Is there an Android app? to merge multiple photos into a larger, flat image?

Most of the apps I found for Android are of poor quality. The best thing I've found is Bimostitch,

It has a number of settings and I think you can change the projection mode (ie from spherical to cylindrical to a flat projection).

Note: The panorama functions in the camera app on the latest Samsung devices are also pretty good, but only work in one direction (multiple series cannot be created).

Privacy – P2P torrents: downloaded data larger than torrent size?

Downloaded data measures all of the data you download, including transmission overhead, duplicates, and faulty packets.

What is overhead?

Overhead is all that is required for BitTorrent to work, but not directly part of the data that you want to use. To use letters as an example, think of the overhead as the ink that is wasted writing the destination and return address.

Another possibility is that you haven't downloaded all the files. Since BitTorrent does not work on the basis of files, but on blocks, there is a certain amount of overhead if the file is not perfectly aligned with the block size (which is normally not the case).

A good example would be drinks. Imagine you want to drink 0.75 liters of cola, but they only sell 0.5 liters of bottles. To get your 0.75 liter coke, you need to buy two 0.5 liter bottles so that you have an overhead of 0.25 liters.

What is a duplicate?

Sometimes customers send you data for your packages that you already have. In this case, your client may still be downloading it just to determine that the package already exists.

What is a broken package?

When data is transferred over a network, this is the case usually ends exactly as it was sent. However, some data may flip due to interference from the physical world. Sometimes clients intentionally send wrong data. In either case, the data is not what it should be and is thrown away.

In each of these cases, you are downloading more than is on your hard drive.

Sockets – Udp packets larger than 1472 are not received

I have a C # client app. It sends data to my server via UDP.

However, this no longer works after I upgrade to Windows 2019 Server.

The reason why it no longer works is included in this link: windows-build-1809-using-c-UdpClient? forum = win10itpronetworking

Essentially it says:

My conclusion is that this optimization (UDP Checksum Offload) was broken in version 1809 and remains broken in 1903
Remedy for now, the optimization must be deactivated (seems
be activated by default). This can be done in the Device Manager.
Find your network card in the list and switch to the Advanced tab.
We're only dealing with IPv4, but IPv6 could also be affected, so you could
both have to deactivate.

and that doesn't work for me because:

We just tested the latest Windows 10 version 1903 and it still works
This problem cannot be solved.

For my product, I need to be able to send through a simplex mechanism. I'm looking at TCP, but I can't see a simplex setting.

Any advice?


The reason why I want to use Simplex is because I want to use a GSM modem connected to my Raspberry Pi to send byte array data to my server.
I prefer to use UDP because it waits for a response from the server because none is specified, ie information about framing is received.

I have found that the GSM modem likes a duplex connection and always resets its DHCP address, making the application unusable.

So, as I said, everything works with the older Windows operating system, but not with this new one.

I would still prefer to use UDP. The suggestions in this link don't work.

So I googled TCP connections – knowing that this didn't work for my application structure – but wondered if it could be set up as a simplex protocol rather than a duplex protocol to avoid the necessary handshaking.

The Google results showed absolutely nothing regarding the Simplex method.

Out of absolute despair, because I have no other place to look, I ask the question here:

Flash – What are the facts about alleged problems with Godox TTL modes outside the camera with f-stops larger than 1: 4 with Sony DSLMs?

For example, an answer to Can a Godox XPro transmitter for one brand trigger a legacy flash for another brand + X1R in TTL? mentioned problems as described in the title.

A quick web search seems to provide contradicting and confusing statements. Therefore, it would be helpful if someone who knew the facts could document them. How will this system behave even with (e.g. adapted) lenses that are factually 1: 3.5 or wider but do not report this aperture electronically?

Recursion – Find a threshold where one function is always larger than the other

Given the recursively defined function $ c $which in my opinion is a variant of the Péter-Ackermann function:
$$ c (m, n) = begin {cases} 0 & text {for} m = 0 \
n ^ 2 + n + 1 & text {for} m = 1 text {and} n ge 0 \
c (m-1, 1) & text {for} m> 1 text {and} n = 0 \
c (m-1, c (m, n-1)) & text {for} m> 1 text {and} n> 0 \
end {cases} $$

and the function $ d $ that builds a "tower" of the powers of $ 2 $ the size $ n + 2 $:

$$ d (n) = Underbrace {2 ^ {2 ^ {. ^ {. ^ {. ^ {. ^ {2}}}}}} _ { text {$ n + 2 $}} $$

The entrances $ m $ and $ n $ are both natural numbers. I am asked to find one $ x $so for all numbers $ y ge x $. $ c (y, y)> d (y) $,

I rewritten the two functions with Python to calculate some values:

 c(m, n):
    if m == 0:
        return 0
    else if m == 1 and n >= 0:
        return n**2+n+1              # return n^2+n+1
    else if m > 1 and n == 0:
        return c(m-1, 1)
    else if m > 1 and n > 0:
        return c(m-1, c(m, n-1))

    exp_num = n-1
    result = 2
    while exp_num != -1:
        result = result**2           # result = result^2
        exp_num = exp_num - 1
    final_result = 2**result         # final_result = 2^result
    return final_result

Some inputs and outputs:

c(1, 1) = 3

c(2, 2) = 183

d(1) = 16

d(2) = 65536

d(3) = 115792089237316195423570985008687907853269984665640564039457584007913129639936

I think the threshold is $ 3 $, how c(3, 3) does not appear to be realistically predictable when you consider that A (4, 2) contains more than 19,000 digits (where A is the Péter-Ackermann function). Unfortunately, I have no idea how to prove it. Any help would be appreciated.