Exposure – Is spot metering just an exposure compensation?

Yes, you could adjust the spot metering result by a degree of EV compensation if you knew how much compensation. We do not usually know it, so instead we measure it to handle it.

Spot metering only analyzes the light intensity in this small spot. The regular measurement looks at a much larger area that is closer to the entire scene. For example, suppose you are photographing a person with a very light background, such as B. a bright sky. The regular ad recognizes the sky, assumes it's important, and tries to put it in the middle of the moon. This will greatly underexpose the person's face to be dark. We have to choose one of them.

So we can detect a gauge on the face of the person. The purpose is that the small spot specifically excludes the disturbing light background. Then the sky will surely burn empty and without details what we expect, but we do not care if the important face comes out well. But of course we should learn to choose a better background. Or to add fill flash. Or something that makes you think for a second about what we do.

Even then, it is very wrong to imagine that the spot metering on anything correctly exposes this spot. This is not how reflected gauges work. Reflection light meters (including spot meters) simply try to bring all measured ranges to midrange. Usually we call this mid-tone "mid-gray," but it can be bluish or greenish, regardless of color. It only means midtone. Reflection measurement, however, is not about "correctness", but about midtone. It might be about right if this point should actually be mid-tone, but many things do not. Instead, incident meters do the "right thing" much better.

All reflected meters simply aspire to this mid-gray result, but not all motifs are correct as mid-gray. We want a photo of a black cat in a coal mine near black and a white polar bear in the blizzard near white. A reflected meter, however, makes both appear mid-gray. That's how counters work. When measuring the spot of a typical Caucasian face, we learn to increase the exposure one level to correct it so that it does not turn medium gray. However, for spot metering, our prevailing idea should be, "How much lighter or darker compensation (other than medium gray) should this spot range have?" Otherwise, it should appear in the middle of the sound, right or wrong.

The general concept of exposure compensation is to set the average gray level measurement result to be the correct result we want. This is where the photographer's knowledge comes into play. The skill is easy with a little experience. It's just about looking at the topic and thinking for a second. It's NOT purposeful, but beginners do not usually understand how to think a second. Light knives are not smart at all, they just try to get a mid-gray result, not too bright, not too dark, regardless of what it should be. The meter does not know what it's supposed to be, but the photographer's brain should have a good idea … if he uses it.

Exposure Metering – How important is it to have spot metering on the meter?

"Is it worth it?" Depends heavily on what you do, how you approach your photograph and what other equipment you want to use.

If you have a modern digital camera, its value is greatly reduced. When working with a large format film camera, they are invaluable if you want to study the light of the scene carefully before deciding how to take your photo.

A spotmeter is just another method of measuring light and is cooked Help You decide how high the exposure is. In many ways it is not much more valuable than the "Sunny 16 Rule", while in other cases it blows such a primitive "tool" completely out of the water.

The key effect of a spot measurement is to be able to accurately and precisely read a particular part of the image to judge how light or dark it really is, and then compare it to other parts of the image.

However, the same effect can be achieved with a cell phone camera that gives you control over the exposure.

Spot meters are very useful, but they are not magic devices that can improve your photography right away. As with other measurement options, their value is based on a thorough understanding of their function and use.

If you find yourself unable to debate the merits of highlights, midtones, shadows, and blacks should be Even before taking a photo, it is unlikely that you will get a high score with most spot meters. However, if you're reading about topics like the zone metering system [based on Ansel Adams and Fred Archer, not the advanced digital metering modes of some cameras], a spot meter may be your best friend.

Finally, consider your options when it comes to it What Gauge that you buy.

Ideally, you want a 1 degree meter. Wider gauges may be useful, but for accurate, clean work, they may be harder to use and run the risk of producing "muddy" results.

You may also find that a complete solution is not the most effective for you. Personally, I use a small gutter that fits my hand to measure incidents and lightning, and I own an old Capital Digital SP II spot meter that I bought cheaply from a second-hand camera dealer on the Internet. [I think they have fewer "fiddle points" to play around with, especially the Capital Digital, which has two buttons: one to measure the light and one to lock the display if it should flutter …]

It may be a personal setting, but if a meter does not have a scale that lets you see all the aperture and shutter speed options for a particular exposure, it's not a "real" meter.

Exposure Metering – What type of built-in exposure meters are available in movie cameras?

I know a number of light meters that are built into film cameras.

First, there are selenium light scopes, as on the lower old Canonet.
Original Canonet

Later, cadmium sulfide (CdS) photocells became more abundant. This later Canonet model used one. It is located directly above the front element of the lens.
Canonet QL17

Thereafter, silicon photocells have become the norm, with increasingly complex segmented meters with transmitted light measurement offering options such as center-weighted averaging, sub-metering, spot metering, and evaluative (Canon) or matrix metering (Nikon).

What other built-in counters used film cameras in addition to the above meter types (selenium cell, CdS cell, TTL silicon multi-segment)? Is there a complete list of useful categories?

(all images courtesy of Wikimedia Commons)

Does DSLR (without exposure metering / live preview) + light meter have the same level of difficulty as working with movies?

Your question seems to focus mainly on the exposure. Let me shed some light on the topic.

Ignoring the built-in meter, using a hand-held meter, and full manual settings is a good practice, whether you're taking digital or movie footage.

You will not get a histogram with movie. The best way to learn how to measure a scene and set the exposure right now.

However, this only makes sure that you have properly exposed your movie. You also have to develop it correctly and print it correctly. You can only prepare for these steps as you become familiar with the concepts. It's the basic chemistry, not the rocket science. you'll be fine.

Other things you can do to prepare are:

  • Use small cards. Ridiculously small cards. For a 35mm roll, you'll get 24 or 36 frames, depending on the roll size. Even less at 645. Even less at 6×6. Even less if 6×7. You understand what I mean. Practice now by really taking the time to compose and get the recording you want. Slower.
  • Change your exposure priority. Digital blast the highlights and they're gone – there's no turning back. But movies (black-and-white and color negatives) tolerate overexposure so much better. They want to "illuminate shadows, develop highlights". This is especially true for color negatives that are never underexposed. Do not worry too much about overexposure. It takes a lot to block the highlights.
  • As you progress, you are now practicing loading a reel. Get a few rolls of cheap movies that you can waste in your practice. You want to be able to crack a can and charge a roll in complete darkness with ease.
  • Just hold it. As you can read above, you will find the endless obsessive threads in pushing / pulling / standing development / halfway / etc / etc / etc. Shoot at box speed and develop according to the information on the bottle / film – do what the manufacturer dictates. If you've edited enough movies to predict the look, you can experiment a little.
  • In accordance with the above point, select a single developer and not more than 3 movies (low ISO values) [100 or less ISO]middle area [400 or 800] and a fast movie [1600 or 3200]). You really want to get to know a process, so choose one and stick with it until you know it inside out.

Exposure Metering – How To Make Exposure Right In Night Photography?

In addition to these exposures, there are many more in these shots that they do so well. Although the environment was usually dark, photographer Jessica Rinaldi (who won a Pulitzer Prize in 2016) was able to see the light in the scene and then used it to her advantage. The composition of the individual pictures shows exactly in which direction the light comes and how it illuminates the motifs.

The color balance and saturation (not too much, but just enough) is phenomenal. Sometimes I find it even more important than the exposure if you miss the exposure, but if the color is right, it still works. Contrast control is also important for such shots, especially to avoid the difference between the very bright light sources and the dark shadows becoming too strong.

As much as we like to say, "Equipment does not matter," having the best tools available can make a big difference in some situations. Full-frame sensors, Fast Glass and RGB + IR measurement can make a big difference in very demanding light like this. It does not mean you tilt You get such good results without these things, but the best tools make it easier and faster to get there. Instead of having to set a specific color temperature and white balance compensation with a monochromatic meter, we can leave the white balance on "Auto" for a multicolor meter and achieve very good results in terms of both color and color.

Now for the exposure.

The vast majority of photojournalists I know would have used manual exposure for most of the images you referenced. How they came to these manual settings would probably have been more diverse than the number of photojournalists interviewed. That is, there are many ways to do that, and sometimes some of us use more than one method in such situations.

For the darkest night shots, it is almost always a trial and error. You set an acceptable shutter speed and aperture and then play with the ISO until you get what you want. If you are waiting for an important moment, choose the exposure using the available light under the same light that you expect to happen to what you are waiting for. There are really no pictures in the pictures you have listed The dark. There is always some light on the subjects, it's just that the surrounding areas are dark.

As more and more light enters the scene, different forms of exposure combined with the exposure compensation become more effective. I like Canon evaluation measurementProbably because that's what I use most often and can often look at a scene to understand how much exposure compensation is needed to achieve what I want. In dark environments with brightly lit subjects, I am not afraid to select -2 to -3 stops from EC or manually make settings where the meter displays -2 to -3. For someone else Center weighted averaging or Point / partial measurement can work better for you. I think the key is to use one method consistently enough until you have enough experience with it to see with your eyes how the meter sees the light in the scene. It's also important to understand when your preferred method is probably not the best way to approach a particular scene and be able to switch to a scene that will be.

For example, the setting of the two with their iPhone (# 11). Spot meter on the nearest face with about + 2/3 to +1 EC and ready. Try to do this recording with evaluation / matrix measurement, and it gets harder.

When shooting at night with strong artificial light sources that illuminate large areas of the scene (such as # 9 of the lights reflected off the white bus side), these are exposures that are very important in evaluating or center-weighted metering is useful even when recorded in manual mode.

Of those referred to, the hardest shot would be No. 13, the one of the lady with posters she wanted to prepare to distribute. She was picked up early in the morning. In the last moments before sunrise, the light changes quickly. But even in this area is a strong, probably constant light source for the camera, which seems to be the basis for the selected exposure setting.

Some of the images you referred to were fleeting moments in the sense that very similar shots would not have been possible before the published shots. All the shots taken on the bus at night were activities that probably took at least a few minutes. So a photographer would most likely have the option to select the exposure for such scenes. The more experience one has in such situations, and the better the way the camera works in such a light, the easier it is to meet them immediately.

From a comment of the OP to another answer:

… The pictures are more like action shots. They look like they're 1/250 or so. You make the picture or the moment is over. The question is how to set the exposure correctly if you do not have time to practice and set up.

There is always a setup required to get a good image. Always. It may have been several hours ago when you set up your camera before leaving the office, and you knew what kind of shots you would take and in what light you would do so. It may have been half an hour earlier than dawn ended, and it was only you and your fellow travelers under the glow of the reading lights and the darkness outside. It may have been a few minutes before the karaoke shot took place when you changed seats, so you have a clear view of the ladies getting ready to start the music. It may take a few seconds for you to raise your camera to the eye, or even after switching the metering mode and selecting in EC to see the two travelers who are illuminated by the screens of the iPhones.

The more fleeting the moment, the more you have to prepare and set up in advance. To do sports. Sport is about as extreme as it is in terms of "… you take the picture or the moment is gone". However, they always look at the light in the breaks when the sun changes and the artificial lights become your primary source of light. They always look at the game and try to predict what is likely to happen next and to be in the right place with the right lens pointing in the right direction to catch it when it happens. They always think ahead, even if they shoot while the players rush towards you. When is the best time to pull the camera away from your eye with your long telephoto lens and pull up your wide-angle body (the one you have) It has already been ensured that it has been set up properly) to push some frames off the breast plane, when they drive past you.

Exposure Metering – How do I calculate the correct exposure when shooting the long-running Fujichrome 400?

Hueco's recommendation shoot and develop several test shots is the best approach. However, if you do not have access to a dark room, you probably do not have the chemicals to develop it.

The rule of thumb You need to stop for every decade of cold storage, so it probably needs to be shot a little slower than ISO 50. However, since you do not know the storage conditions before they are obtained from the previous owner, it may need to be shot even slower.

Since your friend already shot a part and a few frames had faint pictures, You have a reference that you can refer to suspect, Estimate how many stops your friends are displaying. You can use the exposure compensation of a digital camera to get a more accurate estimate. From there you can determine the ISO value can Job.

Hueco also explains: "Slide film has less latitude for exposure errors than neg."

One reason for this is that it should be displayed or projected directly. Under or overexposure affects the direct display. Exposure differences between a series of slides make projection difficult.

Another problem is that the slide film loses its density with increasing exposure. Once the highlights are blown, there are none. If you do not want to view directly but want to scan, you should be able to keep the highlighting. You can then bring the shadows up during or after scanning. (Why does that sound familiar …?)

You can also consider cross-processing.