How to fix the below micro bursting

I’m currently in the process to use Traffic Shaping ‘tc’ to apply rule hoping to reduce the bursts. The application use UDP port 49155 (20ms audio packets to other devices) to send audio to other devices and tcpdum on that specific port shows massive burst happening (see Pic1).

Here is the output before applying any tc

I used the following tc code:

tc qdisc add dev eth2 root handle 1:0 htb default 30
tc class add dev eth2 parent 1:0 classid 1:1 htb rate 5000bit
tc filter add dev eth2 protocol ip parent 1:0 prio 1 u32 match ip dport 49155  0xffff flowid 1:1

After applying tc the traffic looks like this(see Pic2)

After applying tc

Although the bursts have been reduced now to 5000bit, I feel there are still things missing in the tc class to add like delay maybe? I just don’t want this to affect the quality of the service.

astrophotography – Micro 4/3 adapter for T-mount astronomy camera?

Does there exist an adapter to mount Micro 4/3 lenses on a T-mount camera (43mm x 0.75mm thread)?

I want to attach the Mitakon Zhongyi Speedmaster 17mm f/0.95 Micro 4/3 lens to an Atik astronomical camera (cooled CCD, Atik 414ex mono).

Alternatively, an adapter that attached M43 lenses to a C-mount camera work work also. (Adapters that attach a C-mount lens on a M43 camera are easy to find – I need the opposite.)

Either adapter would have to place the M43 lens at the proper flange focal distance (19.25mm) from the sensor for infinity focus.

Does such a thing exist?

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tablet – Proper USB micro splitter?

For my noname low-cost android tablet i’d like to power and use keyboard at the same time – both have USB micro connector on it. But the problem is, that the tablet has only 1 usb micro socket, which gives me lotta trouble. I tried to do male – female – female adapter on my own (without OTG) and it just didn’t work out. Guess that even charger uses communication lines to the tablet.

What can I use then, is there any finished solution out there, that’s ready to use for this situation?

microservices – Routing with micro services

I’ve decided to create my project following a micro service architecture. I have a products service and a reviews service.

The products service essentially stores all information regarding a product whilst the reviews service stores reviews for a product.

I’ve decided to keep these separate from each other as I would like to scale the reviews service at some point in the future.

My products service has a single controller with a bunch of actions, the route for this service is api/products

I realised that on the reviews service I need to create an endpoint to grab all reviews of a product but not sure what the route should be as i feel like because it’s the reviews service the routing should be named like api/reviews but surely you’d expect the route for this action to be api/products/{id}/reviews

How should the routes be named if each service has to be independent from one another?

web development – How does user authorization work in a micro service architecture

When developing and deploying actual micro services, you do not want your consumer to access the microservices directly for several (main) reasons:

  • it introduces heavy coupling on the client to your internal representation, to a certain degree this is similar to a case where you would expose a database directly,
  • it complicates integration on the consumer side, because they need to remember where each service lives, on which URL,
  • it is difficult to perform global checks and filters, such as API throttling,…

You have encountered one of those problems, which will certainly lead to others in the future.

Microservices should be internal in general. They may talk to each other in a synchronous (request/response) manner, although asynchronous (through events) communication is preferred, which makes it easier to deploy microservices separately, and also leads to more proper microservice design regarding their separation. With publicly accessible microservices, if you need to expose them to the outside world, put an API Gateway in front of them.

API Gateway acts yet as another system, through which flow all requests. It’s usually pretty light weight and responsible for routing of requests to appropriate internal microservices. But it has one great added benefit. You can put necessary global operations in it (since it’s your entry point). This includes authentication (who a user is) and optionally authorisation (is the user permitted to).

Since the API gateway authenticates your user (or otherwise rejects the request as a failed auth) and then forwards the request further to an internal microservice, the microservices themselves do not need to bother with authentication anymore. It’s guaranteed to be performed before they’re called, and they can trust the id of the user in the request. For most calls the id is the only thing necessary (without any additional checks), therefore in such context the operations needs not to bother with user logic at all.

With authorisation, it’s a little bit different and depends on the context. If there are simple rules such as: “This endpoint may be called only by users with the role admin,” then such rule can probably be placed in the API Gateway, to reject the request before even routing it into the microservice, which would reject it anyway. With more complicated authorisation closer to the business rules, it’s necessary that the given microservice keeps their copy of a user and checks against its database by itself (circumventing the synchronous like communication).

API Gateway provides also another benefit for your ecosystem. You can introduce multiple backends for your internal microservices, e.g. one for e-commerce, one for some mobile application,… thanks to which the consumer worries only about the exposed endpoints and is not overwhelmed by logic which needs to be internally available in your system but is only consumed from different contexts (therefore exposed as a different backend).

Why is synchronous communication frowned upon? It’s an easy mechanism how to obtain data among microservices, but it leads to direct coupling, because of which you need to introduce patterns like Circuit breakers, and starts to introduce single points of failure in your system, where a single failing microservice (on which tons of other microservices depend) may collapse your entire system. Event-driven systems are more resilient to this type of failure.

In a micro service architecture, how should two services communicate with each other? Shared database? REST calls?

I’ve read a number of conflicting articles as to whether microservices should share a database. How and when should microservices communicate? Someone posed the example of 2 microservices: 1] Employee and 2] Department. Suppose the Employee microservice needs information about a department. Should these microservices share a database? Should they communicate over REST? Should they duplicate data in each of their own databases?

Thank you!

architecture – What is the most common approach for microservices to access data managed by other micro services?

I am exploring using a microservice architecture. Among others, this would include three services, an Orders Service, a Products Service, and a Fulfillment Service.

Let’s say the Fulfillment Service needs information about an order. What would be the more common and most accepted method for Fulfillment Service to access the order information?

  1. Fulfillment Service requests order data directly from Order Service via HTTP.

  2. Both Fulfillment Service and Order Service track copies of order data in their own databases. When orders are created, updated, or canceled, a message would be published which both services would listen for and handle.

    1. This might result in higher fault tolerance: if Order Service goes down, the Fulfillment Service can continue operating independently via its own copy of data.
    2. I suppose with this approach, you’d want to avoid allowing Fulfillment Service to modify product (each microservice would be the source of truth for its particular data).
  3. Another approach.